Today, we will help you to find out the teak wood farming profit per acre and we have given teak wood project report to explain the cost and profit in teak wood farming. Earlier we have also given the detailed information on mahogany tree farming profit and we have shared the project report as well. This is another tree which sells at very high price like mahogany and sandalwood tree. In our upcoming post we will present agarwood project report and we will also share some more details on teak wood farming like teak wood cutting permission, teak plantation permission, teak wood plantation subsidy etc. So stay tuned for more upcoming details.
- 1 Teak wood farming in India
- 2 Teak wood tree information
- 3 Teak wood farming project report
- 4 Different names of teak wood
- 5 Teak wood varieties in India
- 6 Land preparation in teak wood farming
- 7 Teak wood propagation method
- 8 Intercropping in teak wood plantation
- 9 Pests and disease in teak wood
- 10 Harvesting teak trees
- 11 Teak wood yield per acre in India
- 12 Thinning in teak plantation
- 13 Sagwan Contract farming
- 14 Teak wood farming FAQ
Teak wood farming in India
Teak wood farming guide - Teak or tectona grandis is a hardwood species that belongs to the lamiaceae family. Teak wood tree is commonly known as Sagwan tree in India. It is mostly found in tropical regions. Teak wood is native to South and South East Asian countries like India, Indonesia, Myanmar, Bangladesh, Thailand, Malaysia and Sri Lanka.
Teak wood history - Teak is one of the most expensive timber and it has been used as a boat building material since 2000 long years and has great value in India. Teak wood has great water resistance properties and it is also appreciated for its durability. Due to teak wood uses and properties it has great demand over the international market, some of the teak wood tree uses are boat building, exterior house construction, veneer furniture, engraving, turnings etc.
Teak wood origin - Due to weather tolerance quality it is cultivated all over the world, it is traditionally cultivated in Africa and Caribbean countries. It is said that the genetic origin of teak belongs to two centers one is India and the other is shared between Myanmar and Laos. However, Myanmar teak forest accounts for half of the world's naturally growing teak.
Mr Chathu Menon from Kerala is known as father of Indian teak plantation. He is the person who has started teak tree cultivation in Kerala and planted million teak trees. The scientific name of teak wood is Tectonagrandis.
Teak wood species - Tectonagrandis, Tectonagrandia, Tectonaphillipinesis, Tectonahamiltoniana.
Teak wood tree information
Teak tree height - Teak is a large tree and average height of teak tree is up to 40 m or 131 ft. It has grey and brown colour branches which are valued for high quality wood.
- Teak wood tree leaves - teak tree leaves are 15-45 cm long and 8-23 cm wide.
- Teak tree flowers - The Teak tree has a dense cluster of small white flowers at the end of the branches. Teak flowers are less in fragrance but contain reproductive organs. Teak tree flowers are 25 to 40 cm long and 30 cm wide teak flowers usually bloom from June to August.
- Teak tree leaves - teak trees have large papery leaves that are hairy on the lower surface and teakwood smells like leather.
- Teak tree fruits - teak fruits are spherical in shape and have a diameter of 1.2 to 1.8 cm. Tectona grandis or teak tree sets fruit from September to December.
- Teak wood - we can divide teak wood in 2 sections one is heartwood and other is sapwood.
- Heartwood - its colour is yellow and gets darker with time. Sometimes, you can also find dark patches on it. It releases a leather like smell while cutting for the first time.
- Sapwood - It looks whitish to pale yellowish brown in colour.
- Wood density - teak wood density varies according to the moisture content. Teak wood 15 % moisture content is equals to 660 kg/m3
Teak wood farming project report
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Teak wood cost per acre
Price of 1 sagwan plant - Rs 25 to Rs 100 and more
Plant cost - five hundred teak plants are planted in 1 acre
500 plants x Rs 25 = 12,500
Labor cost - Rs 20,000
Manure and fertilizer cost - Rs 8000
Irrigation cost - Rs 15000
Plant protection cost - Rs 5000
Total cost Rs 60500 for 1st year
Total cost for 15 years
Reduce plant material cost i.e 60500 - plant cost (12,500) = 48000
cost for next 14 years = Rs 48,000 x 14 years = Rs 672,000
Total cost for 15 years = 14 year cost + 1st year cost
cost for 15 year teak plantation = Rs 672,000 + Rs 60,500
Total cost = Rs 732500
lets calculate teak wood yield per acre in the below section
Teak wood profit per acre
One teak tree can produce 13-15 cubic feet
Teak wood price per cubic feet - Rs 2,000 to 4,000 per cubic feet
Rs 2000 x 13 cubic feet (1 tree) = Rs 26,000
1 tree price after 13-15 years = Rs 26,000 (depends on cubic feet)
If 500 plants are planted and only 425 trees are in good condition
Then - 425 trees x Rs 26,000 = Rs 11050000
425 teak trees price after 15 years = Rs 11050000
425 teak trees = 1 crore 50 thousand (after 15 years)
Net profit = teak wood tree profit per acre - teak wood tree cost per acre
Net profit = Rs 11050000 - Rs 732500
Net profit = Rs 10317500
Different names of teak wood
There are some other name for teak wood. Another name for teak wood are given below
- Brazilian teak
- African teak
- Moulmein tea
- Rangoon teak
- Sanwan wood
- Burma teak
- Burman red teak
Teak wood name in Indian languages
- Punjabi - Tika
- Marathi - Sagwande
- Bengali - Segunkatha
- Malayalam -Tekk
- Telugu - Teku
- Kannada - Tek
- Tamil - Tekku
- Teak wood name in Hindi - Teak
Teak wood varieties in India
There are various types of varieties of teak wood in India some of them are given below
Price of the teak wood depends on the colour and grain of the heartwood.
West African teak - African teak wood is a bit podgy in comparison of Asian teak wood. Heartwood of west African teak has black lines and wavy grains.
Konni Teak - this variety of teakwood belongs to Kerala state and they are mostly grown in hilly regions of konni. This wood is dark in colour and grows a bit slower, however the wood is stronger than nilambur Teak.
Godavari teak - This teak is from East and West Godavari regions in Andhra Pradesh state. Here teakwood is divided in two forms wet and dry. Wet region teak wood is insipid in color whereas teak wood from dry region is dark golden brown in color. This wood has a good market price but wet region teak wood may suffer from rot fungi.
Central province teak wood - this teak is found in drier regions, and teaks that are found in dry regions have close grain with deep and dark color. This teak is mainly found in the central regions of India and also known as CPT. However, this tree has slow growth but it sells at a higher price.
Myanmar teak - This teak is also known as Burma teak. It has slow growth. The heartwood of this variety looks dark in color and has close grain. Myanmar teak is a natural growing teak and has the highest teak price in the world. One can get good returns while investing in Myanmar. However this and most teak trees take around 25 years to grow mature.
South and central American teak - This variety of teak wood has light color and it produces less heartwood.
Paratwada teak - Paratwada is a place in Amravati Maharashtra and it is famous for supplying teak wood on a large scale to the entire world. There are lots of biggest suppliers of teak wood in Paratwada region.
Adilabad teak - This teak is majorly found in Andhra Pradesh state. The heartwood has a rose color and sells at a good price.
Nilambur or Malabar teak
Climate required for teak wood tree
Teak trees are capable of growing in dry and moisture regions. However, teak trees grown in tropical regions produce good quality wood. Teak trees that grow in proper sunlight produce high quality wood therefore it is necessary to plant them under warm and moist climate conditions.
Temperature required for teak wood tree
Teak trees can easily tolerate high temperatures between 38° C to 45° C and low temperatures between 12° C to 16° C.
Teak Soil requirements
- For teak tree soil you should avoid black cotton, clay soils, sandy soil, rocky soil.
- well drained alluvial soils, loam soil are best soil for teak plantation.
- Avoid water logging land for teak plantation.
- High calcium, potassium, phosphorous and organic matter content soil is preferable.
Soil ph level for sagwan plantation
pH 6.5 to 7.5
Best planting season for teak wood
Before monsoon probably after first shower.
Teak tree water requirements
Minimum 800 to 2500 mm rainfall is required for good growth of teak wood plantation.
Teak wood irrigation
Drip irrigation is recommended for teakwood farming. Drip irrigation is useful for saving water as well as it is beneficial for producing high yield crops.
- Summer - irrigation is required on a regular basis in the summer season. But over irrigation can cause the rot problem in heartwood and sapwood so avoid excess irrigation.
- Rainy season - Avoid any irrigation during the rainy season.
- Winter season - Controlled irrigation is required during the winter season.
- Annual rainfall - 1250 to 3500 mm per year rainfall is required. Over 3500 mm rainfall is good enough for the teaks but at the same time they need near 3-4 dry months in a year.
Land preparation in teak wood farming
Couple of ploughing is necessary before the sagwan planting process. Ploughing is useful for bringing the soil to a fine tilth. After ploughing weed removal need to be done along with picking process of tiny stones for better ground preparation. Water stagnation should be prohibited in teak wood farms. The best fertilizer for every soil is cow dung manure but remember it should be well rotten. Add cow dung manure to the soil during your last plow then dig the pits of 45 x 45 x 45 cm. Now add soil mix and farmyard manure you can also use herbicide and insecticides in each pit.
Suggestions - cultivation which takes more than two years does not demand heavy chemicals or pesticides because you have good enough time to prepare organic pesticides and fertilizers for your cultivation. It is recommended to go with organic fertilizer during such a kind of cultivation that takes more than 2 years and in teakwood farming you have more than 20 years so you can practice organic cultivation in a good manner. It will produce much more effective and good results than chemical cultivation. Organic farming is well known for long run.
Teak wood propagation method
Teakwood is propagated through various propagation methods in plants. These methods are given below please have a look
- Seed propagation
- Vegetative propagation
- Tissue culture propagation
In this method seeds are treated and then used for sowing in the nursery beds. After the germination process farmers used to wait till they grew up.
- Two to three weeks old shoots are selected.
- 3 week old shoots are 5 to 7 cm long and they have tiny hairs along with bright green leaves.
- Drip the base of the shoots for 5 to 10 minutes in IBA then plant them in the nursery until they develop roots.
Tissue culture propagation
In this method shoots are produced in the lab and then transferred to the greenhouse for root development. Once roots are developed then they are transplanted to the main field. This method is also known as clone propagation. Tissues and organs of the plants are used in labs to prepare shoots. Tissue culture teak wood plantation is a bit costly but a fast growing method.
Teak wood plantation spacing
Teak wood spacing is given below
- Planting teak plants with more spacing can produce larger diameters which will have more price in the market.
- Planting teak seedlings closer will help teak stems to grow straighter and faster. It will also grow taller and if they grow taller then you can get more heartwood which results in more price.
- Sagwan tree spacing should be 2 m x 2 m, 2.5 m x 2.5 m or 3 m x 3 m.
- Teak spacing during intercropping - 4 m x 4 m, 5 m x 1 m
- Teak wood spacing for 500 plants - 2 m x 2 m
- Teak plantation spacing for 400 plants - 3 m x 3 m
How many teak trees per acre
You can plant at leas 500 teak trees in one acre land with the above given spacing.
Teak wood plantation tips
Dense spacing in the early years is recommended for straighter and faster height. Teak wood plantation needs to be done before monsoon season to get better thrive and early growth. Good spacing helps in maintenance of the farm.
Teak wood fertilizer requirement's
- Two doses of fertilizer NPK 50 gram per plant in the ratio of 15 : 15 : 15
- This fertilizer need to provide every year but start providing this ration after 3 years from the plantation.
Intercropping in teak wood plantation
Intercropping in teak plantation - You should do mix cropping in any cultivation which takes more than three years so that you can earn regular money for your survival. You can use that money in the maintenance of your farm as well. During intercropping in teak wood you should avoid sugar cane, white rice, jute, and creeping vegetables such as pumpkin and cucumber.
common intercrop in teak wood plantation
Apart from mixed cropping it is suggested to do multi layer farming as well like this you can grow 3 crops in the same field hence teak wood needs more than 20 years to grow. During this long period you can earn some money from mixed cropping along with multi layer cropping.
Pests and disease in teak wood
Teak wood insects
- Tree termite
- Stem borer
- Wet wood borer
- Pupae pests
Harvesting teak trees
Teak harvesting time - However, teak trees take nearly 25-30 years to grow fully mature but teak wood harvesting can be done after 15 years as well. Because 15 years are good enough to develop a good heartwood that can produce good money while selling in the teak wood market.
Teak harvesting process - When it comes to harvesting of teak plants there is certain things to follow for approval of teak harvesting.
- Mark the trees to be cut.
- Add serial number of the trees.
- Submit the report to the chief of the regional forestry office.
- Send the report to the local forestry department with an explanation of thinning operation needs to be done.
- Thinning and harvesting operation starts after the permission granted.
Teak wood yield per acre in India
The teak tree yield around 10 - 15 cubic feet teak wood in about 14 years. The main stem grows to the height of 25-30 feet and attains the girth of 35 - 45 inches.
Teak wood grades
Grade A - Highest quality timber heartwood from fully matured trees. It has identifications such as: feels oily while touching, close grains, golden grown. It makes one quarter of the mature log.
Grade B - It is a bit lower quality in comparison to grade A timber. It can be identified through these - lighter in color, uneven grain, less shine. It makes fourth to one third of the log.
Grade C - Low quality teak wood taken from the logs of immature trees. It has uneven color, not having any traces like natural teak oil, and may damage.
Teak tree girth
Grade 1 log girth above 200 cm
Grade 2 log girth above 150-200 cm
Grade 3 log girth above 100-150 cm
Age - Years
Girth - DBH (cm)
Height - meter
6 - 8
12 - 13
10 - 12
13 - 14
16 - 18
17 - 19
21 - 23
20 - 22
26 - 28
23 - 25
31 - 33
25 - 27
36 - 38
28 - 29
Thinning in teak plantation
The first thinning is conducted in teak plantation at 5 to 10 years after planting of teak depending on site quality and the size of initial spacing. Generally, under good site and close spacing 1.8 x 1.8 m and 2 x 2 m the first and second thinning mechanical thinning's are conducted at 5 and 10 years respectively.
Sagwan Contract farming
There are various companies that are doing teak wood plant contract farming. They are selling 1.5 years old teak plants at the price of Rs 250 to 280 (in bulk).
- Contact number - 9914549494
- Address - Big Em Estates and Infra ltd, Victoria Estate, Defense Road, Pathankot, India
Note - It is requested to perform a detailed enquiry before starting any contract with the company. Also ask whether they have buy back policy or not. It is recommended to make a proper agreement on bond paper before taking the services of the company.
Teak wood farming FAQ
Which is the world's largest teak tree?
Homemalynn 1 is the world’s largest teak tree. It is 27.5 ft in girth and 110 ft tall. Homemalynn 2 is the world’s second biggest tree and it is 27 feet in girth. Earlier kannimara was the world's biggest teak tree. Kannimar is located in Parambikulam wildlife sanctuary, kerala, India. It is 47.5 meters tall.
Where is the world’s largest teak tree?
There are two biggest teak trees in the world and both trees are in Homalin township, Myanmar. The Ministry of Environment conservation and forestry found these trees in homalin town and named them homemalynn 1 and homemalynn 2.
Where is the international teak information network office located?
The international teak information network (technet) regional office for Asia Pacific, Bangkok is currently located at Kerala forest research institute, Peechi, Thrissur, Kerala India.
What does teakwood smell like?
Teak wood has a leather like smell when it is freshly brewed.