Macadamia belongs to the Proteaceae family and genus of four species of trees indigenous to Australia. Macadamia is native to North Eastern, New South Wales, Central and South Eastern Queensland. Macadamia is also known as Queensland nut, Bush nut, Maroochi nut, Hawaii nut and Bapul nut. In Australia this fruit is well known as bauple, gyndl or jindilli.
Australian macadamia seeds were first introduced in Hawaii. Hawaii is a constituent state of the United States of America. Hawaii is the 50th state of the USA which is known for first growing macadamia nuts commercially on a large scale. In 2015 Global production of macadamia was only 160,000 tonnes which is 180,000 short in tonnes. People often ask why macadamia nuts are so expensive? We would say the less production of macadamia is still one of the reasons for most expensive macadamia nuts. South Africa has been the biggest producer of macadamia in the world since 2010.
- 1 Macadamia nut tree information
- 2 Macadamia farming project report
- 3 How to start a macadamia nut farm
- 3.1 Macadamia tree planting spacing per acre
- 3.2 How many macadamia trees per hectare
- 3.3 Varieties of macadamia nut trees
- 3.4 Macadamia tree solve pH level
- 3.5 Macadamia temperature requirements
- 3.6 Macadamia nut growing conditions
- 3.7 Propagation of macadamia nut trees
- 3.8 How to plant macadamia seedlings
- 3.9 How to grow macadamia from seed
- 3.10 Macadamia fertilizer requirements
- 3.11 Pest and disease control in macadamia
- 4 Facts about macadamia nuts
- 5 FAQ
Macadamia nut tree information
Macadamia tree information is given below in a few steps so that you understand easily.
- Macadamia nut tree height - Macadamia tree height is between 2m to 12m or 7ft to 40ft
- Macadamia nut tree leaf - Macadamia tree leaves are arranged in verticil of three to six. Verticil or whorl is an arrangement of leaves, petals, semans, carpels that are wrapped around the stem or stalk. Macadamia leaves are 60-300 mm (2-10 in) long and 30-130 mm (1-5 in) broad.
- Macadamia nut tree flowers - Macadamia tree flowers are long and slender in shape; they are 50-300 mm (2-10 in) long. Individual flowers 10 to 15 mm long.
- Macadamia flower color - Macadamia tree flowers are white, pink or purple with four tepals.
- Macadamia nut fruit tree - Macadamia fruit is hard, woody and globose and it contains one or two seeds. It has a hard nutshell that needs good effort to crack. Macadamia tree bear fruit in the 4th to 5th year but on a very small scale. However, macadamia tree fruiting time needs patience and it bears commercial level fruits after 10 to 12 or 15 years.
Macadamia farming project report
Macadamia farming costs per acre
Macadamia plant cost - Rs 80 to Rs 200 per plant accordingly
Macadamia plants in 1 acre - 120 plants
If Rs 100 per plant then
Rs 100 x 120 plants = Rs 12000
Planting material cost = Rs 12,000 (242.42 $AUD)
Labor cost - Rs 20,000 (374.04 $AUD)
Land preparation cost - Rs 15,000 (280.53 $A)
Fertilizer and manure cost - Rs 6000 (112.21 $AU)
Plant protection charges - Rs 5,000 (93.52 $A)
Miscellaneous cost - Rs 5000 (93.52 $AU)
Total Cost = Rs 63,000 (1,177.34 Australian dollar)
Macadamia farming profit
Macadamia price per kg 2021 India - Rs 2500 per/kg to Rs 4000 per/kg and above accordingly
An average macadamia tree produce 15 to 35 kg per tree per year
Let's take 20 kg macadamia production per tree
Number of macadamia trees per acre - 120 trees
Let’s find macadamia nuts produced by 120 trees in 1 year
120 trees x 20 kg nuts = 2400 kg
120 macadamia trees will produce - 2400 kg macadamia in 1 year
Macadamia nuts 1 kg price Rs 2500
Rs 2500 x 2400 kg nuts = Rs 6000000
Macadamia nut profit per acre = Rs 60 lakh (1,12,131.10 A$ or Australian dollar)
Net profit = macadamia farming profit - macadamia nuts cost in India (farming)
Net profit = Rs 60 lakh (1,12,131.10 $AUD) - Rs 63,000 (1,177.34 $ AUD)
Net profit = Rs 59,37,000 (1,10,997.62 $AUD)
Macadamia nut production per tree
- Macadamia needs 5 to 6 years to produce fruits commercially
- Macadamia nut production in India is 1 kg per tree for 5 years
- Macadamia nut production Australia is much better
- Macadamia tree yields 20 kg per year after 10 years
- An average macadamia nut production per tree is 15 kg to 35 kg nuts per year
- Mature macadamia tree can produce 50 kg nuts per year
How to start a macadamia nut farm
How to grow macadamia tree - To start macadamia nut farms in Australia, India or anywhere you need to grab the basic details of macadamia nut tree cultivation. Details related macadamia cultivation is given below
Macadamia tree planting spacing per acre
macadamia nuts plant spacing - With the spacing of 8 x 4 meters 120 - 135 trees per acre will be good enough due to much sunlight needed by the trees. So avoid the density in macadamia farming for good growth of the tree. With the spacing of 10 by 10 meter 70-80 macadamia plants can be planted in 1 acre and nearly 350 plants can be planted in 1 hectare.
Macadamia tree nursery contact number
- Macadamia nuts tree nursery karnataka contact number - 08048612105
- Macadamia tree nursery delhi, balaji nursery contact number - 8048724171
How many macadamia trees per hectare
With the spacing of 8m by 4m i.e nearly 315 trees per hectare.
Varieties of macadamia nut trees
Varieties of macadamia trees are given below
- Macadamia tetraphylla - edible macadamia
- Macadamia integrifolia - edible macadamia variety
- Dwarf macadamia tree - This tree is ideal for pot and limited space, dwarf macadamia tree can be grown easily at home as well.
- Daddow macadamia tree - This tree is intensive and expanded by shape and size.
- A4 macadamia trees - a4 macadamia cultivar is a special and precious tree that is used in
- Commercial macadamia farming
Best soil for macadamia trees
Soil requirements for macadamias - Well drained sandy loam light soils are the most preferable soil for macadamia cultivation. However, macadamia can also grow in free drainage soils but drainage conditions are best for commercial macadamia production. Moreover, for successful commercial Macadamia farming in Kenya, New Zealand, India or globaly minimum depth of 0.5 meters of friable and well drained soil is indispensable. To minimize the chances of trunk canker disease it is necessary to dig the pit around 1 meter.
Soil with heavy clay or rocky soils.
Macadamia tree solve pH level
Macadamia soil ph level should be between 5 to 6.5
Macadamia temperature requirements
Macadamia temperature climate is classified in various forms that are given below
- Yearly temperature for macadamia 20° - 25°C.
- Average day and night temperature difference - 8°C.
- Summer temperature average - 25°C - 30°C.
- Average winter temperature below 19°C
- Macadamia tree temperature winters 20°
- Blossoming temperature for night below 19°C.
Macadamia nut growing conditions
- Macadamia nut tree growing conditions are given below
- Macadamia nut cultivation prefers subtropical conditions.
- Macadamia nut trees like high summer and low winter temperatures.
- Sandy loam soil with a good drainage system Is preferred for commercial macadamia cultivation.
- Sandy loam soil should contain pH level ranging from 5.0 to 6.5.
- Australian macadamia nut trees from subtropical rainforests like high humidity and rainfall regions for transparent and consistent growth.
- Macadamia trees belong to tropical regions therefore they need full sun to produce fruits.
- Some macadamia trees have upright growth and some have lateral growth.
- Macadamia plants are not comfortable in heavy clay soil, so avoid the soil during macadamia cultivation.
Propagation of macadamia nut trees
Propagation of macadamia nuts can be done by seeds or by cuttings.
One thing you should know is that the macadamia cutting propagation method is much faster than the macadamia seed propagation method. Macadamia seed propagation takes 10 to 12 years to produce fruits whereas macadamia cutting propagation takes 4 to 6 years to produce fruits. Before macadamia plantation in India you should choose the best macademy varieties and there are only two varieties of macadamia fruits that are edible. Both varieties are given below
Best macadamia cultivars
Both these macadamia varieties are edible.
How to plant macadamia seedlings
For growing macadamia seedlings follow the below given steps
Purchase the seedling from your trustworthy nursery
Select tetraphylla and integrifolia macadamia varieties.
Drill a hole according to the root ball of the Seedling i.e dip as root balls of the seedlings.
How to grow macadamia from seed
Macadamia propagation seed - Macadamia nuts germination process takes 3 - 5 weeks. Select a seedling with a developed root system reaching at the height of 5cm along with a couple of leaves and transplant them to a large polybag. 10 month to 1 year old seedlings with a diameter of 1 - 1.4 cm can be used as rootstock.
Macadamia fertilizer requirements
Fertilizer for macadamia nut trees - mulch and animal manure can be used throughout the year during the period of the first four years.
8:10:5 NPK ratio fertilizer, don't exceed 10 pounds fertilizer per tree
Organic fertilizer macadamia - fresh cow dung, mulch, leaf mulch compost, granular plant food. Grow green manure crops such as clover between orchard rows and this will improve nutrient values.
Best fertilizer for macadamia
- Algae fertilizer
- Cow dung
- Rock meal
- Grow trefoil in your macadamia farm
Pest and disease control in macadamia
macadamia tree pest and disease are given below
- Macadamia pest
- Macadamia nut borer
- Tropical not bother
- Stink bug
- Macadamia disease
- Raceme blight
- Slow and quick tree decline
- Stem canker
Facts about macadamia nuts
Image credit - pixabay.com
- Allan Cunningham was the first European to face the macadamia plant in Australia.
- Ferdinand Von Mueller gave the scientific name macadamia.
- Ferdinand von Mueller named macadamia in his friend's name.
- Dr. John Macadam was his friend and John was a scientist and secretary in the Australian philosophical institute.
- Walter Hill was the superintendent of the Brisbane Botanic Gardens Australia and he saw the boy eating the kernel without any side or ill effect. That boy became the first non indigenous person to eat macadamia nuts.
- King jacky was the first known macadamia entrepreneur and he was native to the Logan River clan which is situated south of Brisbane Queensland.
How long do macadamia nuts take to grow?
Macadamia trees can produce fruit for 4 to 6 years.
How long does it take to grow from seeds?
Macadamia seed propagation takes 10 to 12 years to produce fruits.
How long does macadamia cuttings take to produce fruits?
Macadamia cuttings need four to six years to produce fruits.
What is the best macadamia variety in Kenya?
Taita taveta 1 and 2, kiambu 3 and 4, meru 23 and 24, kirinyaga 15 and muranga 20
How many macadamia trees per acre?
It depends on the spacing some farmers use to plant 70-80 plants with the spacing of 10 by 10 meters and some farmers use to plant 120-135 macadamia plants with the spacing of 8 by 4 meters. It is recommended don't go for dense macadamia plantation because it needs full sunlight and during dense plantation their branches will touch and disturb each other and good spacing is required in macadamia tree plantation.