Dragon fruit farming profit and growing tips | dragon fruit project report pdf

Dragon fruit tree is cactus species belongs to tropical region. It grows on the Hylocereus cactus, also known as the Honolulu queen, whose flower only open at night. The tropical fruit native to the United States of America. It's taste is like a combination of a kiwi and a pear. Dragon fruit is also known as pitaya, pitahaya, and strawberry pear.

Plant profile - Species - Cactus, nature - climbing, fruit weight (average) - 150-600 grams and some may reach 1 kg, plants per hectare (high density) - 1100 to 1500, per acre - 500 to 700), yield 25-30 tons after 60 months.

History - Vietnam is the place where dragon fruit is extensively grown. It is also known as pitaya fruit and Thalang loy. The super fruit was introduced to Vietnam by the French we can also say that French is the pitallas of pitaya, and today the average yield per hectare is 22-26 tonnes, that is a milestone itself.

According to Aztec literature Pitahaya fruit date back to the 13th century.

Malaysia is another warm region where you are sure to find the dragon fruit. It was first introduced in 1999 in Sitiawan, Johar and Kuala Pilah regions. Colombia and Nicaragua are other places where pitahaya fruit is grown for commercial purposes.

These regions attest that Pitaya cactus fruit requires a warm climate, thus prospers well in semi-arid areas. Planting the fruit has great benefits since it's industrially used in juices, making wine and flavorings, not forgetting its medicinal value.

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Dragon fruit farming profit and growing tips

You can follow the steps given below in the form of question answers.


Three dragon fruit varieties and best quality dragon fruit variety is explained below.

  1. Hylocereus undatus : White flesh with pink/red skin most popular in Australia.
  2. Hylocereus Megalanthus : White flesh with yellow skin.
  3. Hylocereus Costaricensis : Purple/red flesh and pink/red skin.

Hylocereus Megalanthus - This type of dragon fruit has a white fruit flesh and a yellow shell. The shell of this variation is a bit thornier than the rest of the variations, so it is rarer to see in a garden.

Hylocereus Undatus - This is a variation with same white flesh, but exterior of this fruit is red. 

Hylocereus Costaricensis - This type of fruit is red in colouration on both the shell and the flesh. The flesh is often a deep red colouration that looks almost unnatural or blood-like. 

What is the price of a dragon fruit plant cutting?

If you are thinking to grow this fruit at your home or your farm, then the first ever question strikes to your mind as it did strike to me as well, is - the cost of dragon fruit cutting is? 

The cost of a dragon fruit sapling is Rs 30. 

What climate does dragon fruit need?

It is a fruit of warm climate, it loves sunlight and heat, but that also should not be excessive. However, this fruit plant survives in poor soil conditions and temperature variations, but the tropical climate region is best for the plant.

It's a subtropical perennial plant; loves warm weather and partial sun. If you live in a high altitude area where the climate is colder, you can still grow it, but make sure you do so in pots, and don't put the shrub outside, significantly if below 28F.

It grows as cactus plant which love warm, humid climates and need very little water. These plants are a subtropical plant which needs at least six hours of sunlight per day. They will also grow well in a warm and sunny spot indoors.

Soil requirement for cultivation

Pitahaya fruit can be grown on almost any soil; Sandy soils that have good irrigation are generally preferred. The PH of the soil should be between 5.5 to 6.5 for a good crop. However sandy soil is the best option for this plant if it is not available, just ensure that the soil you are choosing should be a well-draining soil.


To ensure that dragon fruit is growing correctly, give some fertilizer every month during the active growing season. You can stop feeding your plants during cold winter months. Dragon fruit faming in India is gaining popularity day by day specially in south region.

Fertilizer can be divided into two parts organic and inorganic. Inorganic fertilizer has better control over nutrients and can be complimented with that of organic fertilizers.

Organic fertilizers like compost or manure have the advantage of releasing nutrients more slowly. Therefore the combination with inorganics, whose release is faster, is a good option.

Apply fertilizer after 2 to 3 months after planting a tree. It is when the tree starts growing. During the first year after planting a dragon fruit cactus, fertilize every eight weeks with light doses of fertilizer. 

Start fertilizing a couple of inches from the stem, extending is 10-15 inches from the stem. After application make good irrigation. 

Water need

Dragon fruit is part of the cactus plant family, so it demands less water. Water the plant as you would a cactus or a succulent. This means modern watering - it's always best to give less water. Watering dragon fruit plant depends on the climate, humidity and age of the plant.

Best time to plant dragon fruit

The best time to plant this fruit is summer's and early spring one should avoid planting it in winters. These plants start bearing fruits after 8 months.  

Grow dragon fruit from cuttings

Cut a 6-15 inch (12-38cm) stem from a plant (the parent plant) at least one-year-old. Cut at an angle for best results. Let the cut stem heal for about a week in a dry place. 

I highly recommend the drip irrigation technique, that is most useful while planting fruit on a large scale. Use a concrete pole to support your plant because it is a climbing plant and needs support in initial days. 

Growing dragon fruit from seeds

If one uses seeds instead of cuttings to have the fruits, he should know that it takes a longer time to grow than plant cuttings. It may take more than 16 months to produce fruits, while plant cutting only take 8 months to deliver fruits. 

Slice a dragon fruit in half and use a spoon to collect scrape some seeds. Fill a small pot with sterile seed starter or cactus soil mix. Use a spoon to mix the seed into the top quarter-inch of soil. Make sure this layer is moist and then cover with a plastic sandwich bag or clear food wrap. The cover will retain moisture and warmth. 

Note - Growing  from seeds can take several years to bear fruit.

Dragon fruit harvesting

The fruit becomes ready for harvesting after one month of flowering. Fruiting time continues till December. Picking up these fruits can be done up to six times within this period.

The fruit harvesting stage is very simple as immature fruit colour is bright green and will turn into a red colour once it is ripened. The exact time for harvesting is 3 to 4 days of colour change. But while exporting, they should be harvested one day after the colour change. Use the sickle or hand to pick the fruits.    

How to plant a dragon fruit at your home or garden?

  • If you want to plant a dragon fruit at your home or garden, you should chose a container or pot that's big enough to support the plant and ensure it has suitable drainage holes. The pot should be at least 20-25 inches deep and hold 30-35 gallons.
  • Fill your pot with the correct soil, and water the soil well. Wait until the soil has absorbed all the water and is draining properly before planting. Dig a hole in the middle of the soil that's at least 3-5 inches deep and place the cutting inside it, packing the soil firmly around the stem. 
  • To plant this fruit in your garden you need a pole to give support to your dragon plant, you can use concrete plant for best results. Don't need to feed it with fertilizer for couple of months for details scroll down and go to my fertilizer section. Although pitaya fruit plant can be grown in any soil but sandy and loamy soils are best for dragon fruit plant.

How to grow dragon fruit in pots? 

  • There are two ways you can grow dragon fruits in pots. The first way involves growing the plant from cuttings, and the secound way is to plant seeds. Which ever method you choose keep in mind that growing it from seed could take couple of years to produce fruits, whereas growing from cuttings will only take eight months or hardly a year.
  • Growing from cuttings is the most popular method, but it can also be quite challenging to achieve, especially for beginner gardeners. The fruit grows well in pots and pot can be used when you live in a cooler climate or do not have a lot of growing space. 
  • Fruit growing in pots is reasonably easy to care for, and dragon fruit plants are no exception Growing dragon fruit in pots is easy because you can move the pot indoors once the weather cools and you can also control the amount of sun it receives.
  • Choose a pot about once or two times bigger than the dragon fruit's root ball. It will usually be a 5-gallon pot that's 10-12 inches in depth. You will need to re-pot the plant every year as it grows. A mature dragon fruit tree will fit in a 25-30 gallon size pot.

Different ways to pollinate dragon fruit

  • Most dragon fruit verities are self pollinating, but there are a few verities that require cross-pollination. If that is the case, you will need to grow two or more plants close to one another so they can cross-pollinate. Cross pollination usually occur at night because pollination depends on moths and bats.  
  • Moths, bats and bees pollinate the plant, but some varieties do not self pollinate at all. You will need to collect the pollen from two different plants, use a cotton swab to paint it onto the opposite plants stigma to cross-pollinate.
  • It needs to be one at night so between eight at night and the six in the morning is best. If you are pollinating different plant use a new cotton swab for each. It will take about a month for the fruit to grow.
    Dragon fruit benefits
    Helps to loose weight
  • One whole pitaya fruit contains just 60 calories and only eight grams of sugar. That is terrific compared to other fruits, one apple is about eighty calories, where banana and mango carries 100 calories.
  • Hence, the lesser calories we will intake the lesser weight we will gain. If you will take fewer calories and burn more than there is a high possibility to reduce weight or burn belly fat, if you work harder you might reduce tummy in just seven days.
  • Yes there are very high chance to lose weight via pitahaya fruit but at the same time you should be strict with your other food habits, like one should avoid oily food, junk food otherwise only fruit can't do anything.

How to lose weight from 100 kgs to 50-60 kgs if someone asks question like this, one will instantly think about the calories. Here I can add a question for you how we gain wait? And the answer is simple it depends on a formula,

how much calories we are burning in and how much calories we are burning out.

If you are eating two chapatis of 25 gram each (1chapati+1chapati=200 calories) (1chapati of 25gram = 100 calories) that means you are taking 200 calories and if you are burning (running, exercise, jogging etc) only 160 calories, rest 40 calories will store in your body. If this process continues than you are adding everyday extra 40 calories.

Top ten health benefits of dragon fruit

  1. Rich in antioxidants like flavonoids, phenolic and betacyanin.
  2. The protein component of the pitahaya fruit enhances the body's metabolism.
  3. It's naturally fat free and high in fibre.
  4. Carotene helps maintain and equally improve the health of the eyes.
  5. It has phosphorous that aids in tissue formation.
  6. It contains prebiotics, which are food that feed the healthy bacteria called probiotics in your gut.
  7. It can strength your immune system. 
  8. Vitamin B1 assists in the production of energy as well as metabolizing carbohydrates.
  9. Vitamin B2 acts as a multivitamin to recover and improve loss appetite. 
  10. Vitamin B3 lowers bad cholesterol level and enhances the appearance of the skin by moisturizing and smoothening it. 
  11. These are some of the health benefits of eating dragon fruits.


Organizations supporting dragon fruit farming in India

  • ICAR - Indian Council of Agricultural Research.  
  • SOFRI (Vietnam) - Southern Horticulture Research Institute. 
  • IIHR (Bangalore) - Indian Institute of Horticulture Research. 

For more details on- DRAGON FRUIT FARMING -watch this excellent video

Dragon Fruit Project Report

Dragon fruit cultivation cost per acre

Five to six lakh per acre is the much needed investment for dragon fruit farming. Drip irrigation, leveling, labour installation included with good quality of plant will cost 5 to 6 lakh per/acre.

It is a one time investment because the life of the plant is at least 20 years. Dragon fruit is a climbing cactus and will need support to climb. Therefore, in orders, to grow you will need to plant it near a fence, build a trellis, or a climbing pole. In either case, it's extremely important for your fruit plant to be able to support itself.

I am suggesting concrete as support because the weight of this plant will grow 200 to 250 kg in 5 to 10 years (because  of tons of fruits). Moreover, it is economically very good in comparison to steel and other materials; concrete pole usually survive for thirty years. The cactus plant needs support, and concreate is one of the cheapest and healthiest option available to support the plant for years.  

One can install the spacing of eight foot by ten foot, 450-500 concrete poles in one acre of land can be installed for dragon fruit farming.  

Labour cost in required in fruit farm: As dragon fruit farming is a commercial crop farming system, we must employ at least one labour or skilled worker to manage a 1-acre fruit farm. On average, we may pay Rs-6,000, per/month. For one year, the labour cost is Rs-72,000 for one skilled labour/worker. 

Age of dragon fruit is approximately 20 years however, it can produce few fruits after 8 months and lot more fruits after 2 years moreover it will increase producing fruits every year till twenty years; this is the most promising reason behind the ultimate success of this plant across the world. 

If we talk about variety, then one should try "C" variety plant because it is high yielding and fast-growing plant variety.  

Red pulp variety is 160-220 Rs kg but whit pulp variety is meagre, only 70-80 Rs kg.

Dragon fruit farming profit per acre

Yes it is possible to earn ten lakhs in a month from dragon fruit farming. 

When it comes to profit, the income from 1- acre dragon fruit is around ten lakhs, after taking out the cost, you can get a net profit up to five lakhs, per acre in first year later it will increase. The amount of five lakh which you invested is one time investment for twenty years because the life of dragon fruit is at least 20 years.

One can get fruit from just eight months old dragon fruit plant, and after sixteen months, it can produce 6.5 ton per acre. It will increase day by day after two years it will produce at-least 10 to 12 ton of dragon fruits per/acre. Let us do a quick math here. 

However, the average price of red pulp dragon fruit is 150-200 Rs/kg, for example if someone is producing around ten-ton fruits in one acre of land and selling it in just 100 Rs/kg then also he is earning 10 lakh in one year, still can't understand look at the formula given below.

1 ton = 1016 kg ---> 10 ton (10x1016) will be = 10160 kg.

If selling price is 100 Rs per/kg ---> 100 x 10160 = 10,16,000 - Rs Ten lakh, sixteen thousand/

I guess, I have made you understand about dragon fruit business plan and now you are aware of dragon fruit yield per year. I have given just an example you can calculate it by putting the actual value of the fruit which is around 150-200 Rs/kg in C type variety. Don't forget to reduce your investment of Rs 5 to 6 lakh, but the specialty of the fruit i.e, it is just one time investment and will give more benefits after increasing years. Apply the same formula to get dragon fruit yield per hectare.

Where to sell dragon fruit in India

Before starting dragon fruit cultivation for profit you should know where to sell dragon fruit and Mumbai is the hottest dragon fruit mandi in India because dragon fruit farming in Maharashtra is in much more profit making position then others. Apart from Mumbai dragon fruit selling market is available at Gujarat, Ahmadabad (kalupur market), Karnataka and you can also choose online platform like indiamart to sell your product. You can make your own online store and tie up with some big brands like amazon.com, bigbasket.com, indiamart.com etc. 

Apart from this you can also contact with 3 to 5 start hotels where the pitaya fruit is used as desert, starter, pitaya bowl and sometime in main course. You should also approach big ice cream companies where the demand of kamalam fruit is quite impressive due to dragon fruit shake, pitaya fruit shake and these big companies contains lots of small stalls. You can also target big malls where the demand of pitaya bowl seems always high.

Is dragon fruit cultivation in India have scope?

Yes, there is an excellent scope in dragon fruit cultivation in India, the cultivation of the fruit is gaining popularity day by day especially in the south region including Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil-Nadu, Maharashtra, Gujrat, Orrisa, West-Bengal, Andhra-Pradesh and Andaman & Nicobar Islands. 

We can't see much growth in the north region of India compared to the south region. However, this fruit plant survives in poor soil conditions and temperature variations. But the tropical climate region is best for its cultivation - the tropical monsoon climate. A tropical monsoon climate is the type of climate found in the southern and central area.

Karnataka is fast emerging as the country's leader in dragon fruit cultivation, spread over 1000 acres in the state. Dragon fruit farming in Karnataka becoming the hottest industry in India.

Not only that, the State has become a knowledge bank for the cultivation of exotic fruit as scientist of the Hessarghatta- based Indian Institute of Horticulture Research (IIHR) are supporting its cultivation in different parts of the country through technical counselling. 

I am not saying that it cannot be grown in a region like Nepal and Uttarakhand instead of that this fruit farming in Nepal is on the growing scale, but the fruit farming in Uttarakhand is way back. For same fruit Gujarat is scaling day by day.

For more information (pharmacological uses) of this plant click on the links given below - 


Which land is suitable for dragon fruit?

It easily grow in rich fertile soil. It is soil friendly, but best soils suits are sandy loam to clay loam. 

What is the size of the dragon fruit's flower? 

They can reach the diameter of up to 25 cm and are about 30 cm in length. Flowers only open up for one night and give off a beautiful exotic and fruity scent.  

Which is the rarest dragon fruit in the world

Tyalgum purple dragon fruit is the rarest fruit in the world. That is considered as superior quality fruit.

Which variety is expensive?

Yellow and red dragon fruits are the most expensive fruits, white coloured fruit is the cheapest dragon fruit. 

How much does a dragon fruit plant cost?

Dragon fruit plant varies between Rs 30 to 70 according to location. In places like Maharashtra, Karnataka you may get the plant between Rs 30-45 and in places like UP, Uttarakhand the dragon plant price can be up to Rs 50 to 70

What is the price of one dragon fruit

Price of dragon fruit varies between Rs 150 to 200 per/kg, Rs 200 to 400 per/kg and above according to different verities and location. Dragon fruits are usually big in size and if some one is looking for single fruit then the size plays an important role here. Suppose, if a person is buying one kg dragon fruit at the price of Rs 150 then depending on size one single dragon fruit might be between Rs 90 to 120.

How long does it take to grow dragon fruit and deliver the first fruit?

One can get fruit from just eight months old fruit plant, but this is not much, only 2 to 3 kg, but after sixteen to eighteen months it can produce 6.5 to 7 ton per/acre. However, container grown plants may take up to two years to bear fruit.  The good news is that once the plant is mature, you could see four to six fruiting cycles a year from a plant capable of bearing fruit for 20 to 30 years. Now you can imagine, why dragon fruit is expensive.

How dragon fruit taste like?

Pitahaya fruit tastes like a mix between a kiwi and a pear. A fresh pitahaya fruit contains lots of water soft creamy texture you feel when eating it fresh. Taste of dragon fruit is sweet fresh and slightly sour. 

Is dragon fruit cactus?

Yes, dragon fruit tree is a cactus species.

Pros and Cons


  • Soil Friendly - Dragon fruit can be grown on almost any soil.
  • Needs only eight months to deliver first couple of fruits.
  • Good business opportunity due to high returns for a long period. 
  • Worldwide - Extreme demand.
  •  Ability to produce fruits- for twenty years.


  • Difficult to grow on cold climates. 
  • Growing from seeds, takes too much time.
  • India- not able to produce on a large scale.
  • It is still unrecognized cultivation in the north region of India.
  • One needs at least 5-6 lakh to start cultivation in one acre.
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