Guava is medium size tree native to tropical and subtropical regions. Guava is one of the popular commercial farming in India. It is one of the easy-growing trees which doesn’t need much care and is able to produce good returns.
The guava farming “Project Report” and cost analysis are given here. Propagation methods are also explained along with other facts.
Major guava-producing states in India
Maharashtra, Bihar, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, and Tamilnadu.
Top fruit production in India
After mango, banana and citrus the guava is in number 4th position.
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Guava cultivation practices
For beginners the guava best farm practices are given below:
Varieties of guava
Allahabad safeda, Lucknow 49, Anakapalli, Banarasi, Chittidar, Hafshi, Sardar, Smooth green Arka mridula, Nagpur Seedless, Dhudhe khaja, Arka Amulya, Baruipur.
Entire India has good growing conditions for guava trees. Guava plants can easily survive at an elevation of 1600 ft above sea level. The climate for growing this fruit should be dry with distributed rainfall throughout the year. High wind velocity is not suitable for growing trees. Wind velocity ranges from 18 to 24 km per hour is ideal for cultivation.
Rainfall required for cultivation
In one year 1000 to 2000 mm of rainfall is required for guava farming.
Guava tree temperature should be between 23°C to 28°C.
Guava plants can grow in almost any soil but the best soil for guava is clay and sandy loam soil with good drainage and high organic matter.
Soil PH level
Soil pH should be around 5 to 7 pH.
Guava plant propagation is done by two methods: they are propagated either by seeds or by vegetative methods.
Seed propagation – Seeds for guava propagation are obtained from ripe guava fruits. In the month of August or February, the seeds are sown in the raised soil bed nursery. Once the seedling reaches the height of 10 to 15 CM they are replanted in the main field which later becomes a guava tree.
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Patch budding is done in the month of May-June In which the scion of length 2.5 cm from one seedling is removed and it is tied to another exposed rootstock with the help of a polythene strip in such a way that the buds are left uncovered.
Vegetative propagation – When it comes to the guava vegetative propagation method it can be done in the following ways: Air layering, cuttings, and mound layering. Growth regulators are used to perform air layering methods. In this method, guava shoots of 1 cm are selected and a ring around 2 cm is cut below the bud area.
For guava cultivation in India, most of the time rectangular plots are used for easy cultivation. Before digging the pits the land was harrowed, plowed, and leveled. Pits of 0.6m x 0.6m x 0.6m is prepared. For better growth of plants, you can mix 20 kg organic manure + soil + 500-gram superphosphate after 18-20 days.
How many guava plants per acre
One can plant 115-120 guava trees in 1 acre with a spacing of 6 x 6 m.
When you are planting 120 guava trees per acre then the plant spacing should be 6m x 6m.
Organic fertilizer is best for any crop to grow healthier. Organic manure and inorganic fertilizer are also used for guava cultivation in India.
Fertilizer dose – Fertilizer is applied in three split doses: Fertilizer 33% – month February, 33 % may June, and the remaining in September.
Irrigation during the fruiting stage increases the fruit size, fruit health and fruit production. Guava tree needs to be irrigated every 7-10 days in summers and 25 days in winters. An irrigation system is a far better system for improvement in any crop production.
Disease and pest
Disease – Phytophthora fruit rot, stylar end rot, wilt, guava rust, anthracnose, canker.
Phytophthora fruit rot – 0.2 % diathane z – 78 is used to control this disease.
Stylar end rot – 0.3 % copper oxychloride in 15 day interval.
Wilt – Aspergillus niger strain AN17 @ 5 kg/pt.
Guava rust – Controlled by spraying 0.1 % of bordeaux mixture.
Anthracnose – Spring 3% copper oxychloride can control this disease.
Canker – Lime or bordeux mixture is used to control this diseaes.
Common pests – fruit fly, bark eating caterpilar, pomegranate butterfly, castrol capsule borer, stem borer.
Fruit harvesting in India
Guava plants grown through the grafting method can bear fruit in the third year. For rainy-season crops, the harvesting time is August – September. Whereas for the winter season crop harvesting takes place in the month of January or February.
Remember, under normal conditions you should store guava for only 2 to 3 days because it might get perishable for holding too long. The fruit should be sent to market immediately or it should be stored under cold conditions of 8 to 10 degrees for 2 to 5 weeks.
Guava yield per plant
A 10 year old guava tree can produce hundred kg of fruits.
Grafted plant yield – 350 kg per tree,
Seedling plants yield – 90 kg per tree of fruits.
2-year-old guava plant yield – 2 to 5 kg fruits per tree.
Tree yield per hectare – 25 tonnes.
Guava Farming Project Report
|Guava farming cost per acre|
Plants per acre = 115 plant
1 Plant cost = Rs 30, Rs50
Planting material cost = Rs 50 x 115 plants = Rs 5750
Manure and fertilizer cost = Rs 7,000
Insecticide and pesticide cost = Rs 5000
Labour cost = Rs 20,000
Land preparation cost = Rs 10,000
Irrigation cost = Rs 15,000
Electricity cost = Rs 10,000
1 year cost = Rs 72,750
Calculate cost for next 9 years
9 year cost = Total cost – plant cost = 67000
9 year cost = 67000 x 9 = Rs 603000
Guava cultivation 10 year cost = Rs 603000 + Rs 5750 (plants)
10 year cost = Rs 608750
Guava profit per acre
Guava trees per acre = 115 guava plants per acre
Yield per tree = A 10-year-old guava tree can produce 100 kg of fruits.
Trees per acre = 115 trees
Multiply all trees planted in 1 acre with 100 kg to get the yield per acre
Yield in 1 acre = 115 trees x 100 kg = 11,500 kg
Guava price per kg = Rs 40 to Rs 150 or more according to the season.
Let’s take the average guava price Rs 40
Guava Profit for 10th year = Rs 40 x 11500 kg = Rs 4,60,000
Guava farming profit per acre (10th year) = Rs 4,60,000
5 year old guava tree can easily produce 30-35 kg per tree
If 30 kg fruit is produced per year till the 10th year, then:
30 kg x 115 trees = 3450 kg
Profit = 3450 kg x Rs 40 (guava price) = Rs 138000
Profit for 5 years = Rs 138000 x 5 = Rs 690000
Net Profit = Rs 690000 + Rs 4,60,000 = Rs 11,50,000
Net Profit = Profit per acre – Cost per acre
Net Profit = Rs 11,50,000 – Rs 608750 = Rs 5,41,250
Note – This is the assumption of profit and actual value may differ according to the variety, location, marketplace, demand and supply.
How much space does guava tree need?
For 112 plants spacing is 6m x 6m.
When should I plant guava?
Guava planting should be done during the monsoon season.
How much time does the guava tree take to grow?
Guava tree needs 2 years to grow and after 2 years they can bear 4-5 kg of fruits after 10 years guava tree bears 100 kg of fruit.
What is guava tree yield per plant?
A 10-year-old guava tree produces 100 kg of fruits.
What does the guava plant cost in India?
The cost of a guava sapling varies between Rs 25, Rs 30, Rs 35, Rs 50 to Rs 100 according to the variety.
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