Nagpur is well known as an orange city due to its huge production and major trade center of oranges. If you are willing to start orange cultivation then all the needed information is given here including temperature, plant spacing and all other practices.
Orange is also addressed as sweet orange and it is one of the most cultivated fruits in the world. Orange is well known as santara in Hindi. It belongs to the citrus fruit category and is found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The orange tree is not a wild species actually it is licked by cross-breeding two other varieties of citrus fruits.
First cultivation was started by North Eastern India later in the 13th century it was the beginning of orange farming in South America and Central America. This fruit also traveled to Europe region during the 13th century.
Orange fruit introduction
Orange is a citrus plant and a modified Berry which is also known as hesperidium. The fruit is covered by a yellow peel which looks yellow in colour after ripening and green in colour before ripe. The tree is a flowering variety and it is an evergreen tree in India. Orange tree height is 9 to 10 meters containing oval-shaped leaves.
Mesocarp is the white bitter tissue situated under the peel of the fruit. It has a sweet and sour taste mostly used in fruit juices, and shakes and the leaves contain a medicinal value.
4 subcategories of oranges
Common, Pigmented, Navel and Acidic oranges.
Orange production in India
Somehow, India only produces 9.23 tonnes per hectare. India exports oranges to countries: Bangladesh, Kuwait, and Oman. Commercial orange farming in Maharashtra is done on a large scale and when it comes to accountability the state alone contributes 40% of the total orange production in India.
Orange commercial cultivation in Madhya Pradesh and Assam is also done on a large scale by farmers therefore these two states hold respectively second and third positions in production.
Nagpur oranges Are famous for their fruit quality and have a geographical indication tag (GIT).
Orange production in the world – After the US, Indonesia and Turkey India is the third largest producer of oranges in the world.
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What are the properties of an orange
The taste of the orange depends on the sugar and acid ratio.
The lower the ratio will be sweeter the fruit will be. In sweet oranges, a 10 or 15:1 ratio is found. It is a citrus fruit and citrus fruits contain vitamin C.
This fruit contains 64% of vitamin C for every 100 grams of fruit.
Characteristics of orange
- Orange contains beta-carotene, lutein, and beta-cryptoxanthin.
- Orange fruit has flavonoids like naringenin.
- Esters, terpenes, alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones.
- Fats, proteins, vitamins (A,B,C,E) and fibre.
- Calcium iron magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, zinc.
- They contain water upto 86 %.
How to grow oranges and cost profit
Orange varieties in India
There are 5 types of oranges in India and these varieties are cultivated on a large commercial scale: Khasi Mandarin, Darjeeling Santra, Nagpur Santra, Coorg Mandarin, and Kinnow.
Suitable climate for growing oranges
Arid and semi-arid regions of the southwest are suitable climate conditions for growing oranges. Humid regions of the northeast are also the best growing conditions.
Growing the fruit in the subtropical region is quite beneficial for production. The ideal temperature for growing oranges is 13°C to 37°C. Some varieties can be grown up to 2000 meters above sea level.
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Soil requirement for orange trees
Light and well-drained soil are considered for these plants. The ideal soil for oranges is sandy loam, alluvial soil, clay loam and laterite soil.
Soil PH for orange trees
5.5 to 7.5.
When it comes to water requirements the plant needed 900 to 1100 mm of water per year. For watering the plants needed intervals of 10 to 15 days during winter and 5 to 7 days intervals are required during the summer season. Orange plants are more water-consuming plants in comparison to other sub-tropical fruit plants. They need 60 to 170 litres of water a day. We recommend drip irrigation for orange cultivation, especially in low-rainfall areas.
Orange propagation is done through seeds or grafts. Seed propagation takes a long time almost 8 to 10 years so this method is hardly practiced by farmers. The grafting method which is also known as the orange vegetative method is popular among farmers due to its quick results. In comparison to seed propagation vegetative propagation takes 3 to 5 years to produce fruits.
Grafting – In this method 8 to 12 inches budwood Is obtained from the healthy orange tree and is inserted under the bark of the host tree. Rootstock plant should be selected and a one-inch vertical cut is made with the help of a sharp knife. At bottom of the vertical cut, the horizontal cut is made in such a way that it looks like a converse T. The graft is wrapped under the tape and it is recommended to remove it after 30 days only.
Land preparation orange farming
A couple of plowing is necessary for farm preparation. The pit size should be 1x1x1 meters and each pit needs to be filled with a mix of FYM 15-20 kg. Moreover, 500 gram of superphosphate and topsoil is also required in these pits.
Orange planting time in India
The best time for planting oranges in India is June to August.
Normal density – Spacing in meters is 6 x 6 meters for 277 orange trees per hectare.
High-density – High-density planting is done in hilly regions. Plantation per hectare will be 2550 plants.
Manure and fertilizer for orange trees
Fill each pit – half kg of superphosphate.
During first year – 20 kg FYM per plant.
Subsequent years – 10 kg, 15 kg, 20 kg respectively.
Annual supplement –
3 split doses – 100-gram nitrogen in 3 split doses: April, august and november.
2 split doses – 50-gram phosphorous fertilizer during august, november.
If soil looks black clayey – 25 gram potassium fertilizer is required.
Important micronutrients – Important micronutrients required for the orange plant are zinc, manganese and iron. Copper, boron and molybdenum also play an important role in the requirement.
Pest and diseases
Orange pests and diseases are whiteflies, scales, thrips, mealybugs, nematodes, leaf miner, citrus psyllid, aphids, mites and orange dog.
Orange harvesting season in India
Harvesting time is considered 3 to 4 years from the planting period. Generally orange produces 3 flushes termed:
Ambiya bahar during december – January.
Mrig bahar during June – July.
Hasth bahar during Sep – oct.
The orange tree takes 3 to 4 years from planting to bear fruits on the tree.
Orange Farming Project Report
Orange farming cost per acre
Orange plant cost = Rs 50 per plant
Trees per hectare = 300 trees
Planting material cost = Rs 50 x 300 plants = Rs 15,000
Ground preparation cost = Rs 15,000
Labour cost = Rs 20,000
Irrigation cost = Rs 25,000
Fertilizer and manure cost = Rs 20,000
Plant protection charges = Rs 6000
Agriculture equipment cost = Rs 10,000
Total cost = Rs 1,11,000
Cost for 3 years = Rs 1,11,000 x 3 = 333000
Cost = Rs 333000 – 30,000 (plant cost)
Total cost for 3 years = Rs 303000
Orange Farming Profit Per Hectare
Orange tree yield per tree = 10 kg (approx)
Trees per hectare = 300 trees
Tree yield per hectare = 10 kg x 300 trees = 3000 kg
1 kg of orange price in India = Rs 70, Rs 80, Rs 100 or more (variety)
Let’s take the orange price per kg = Rs 80
Orange farming profit = Rs 80 x 3000 kg fruits = Rs 2,40,000
Net Profit = Profit per hectare – Cost of a hectare.
Net Profit = Rs 2,40,000 – Rs 303000 = – 63000
The orange tree starts bearing fruit after 3 years and you will be on profit from the fourth year. Till 3rd year you might be at a loss of Rs 63000 which you will cover in the fourth year.
This is the assumption of the project report which may vary according to the variety, market, demand and labor charges, etc.
What is the best soil for orange trees in a pot?
The best soil for growing oranges in pots is alluvial soil, clay loam sandy loam and laterite soil.
What is the orange yield per tree?
An orange tree can produce 50 to 90 fruits per tree.
What is the productive lifespan of the orange tree?
What is the orange harvesting time?
Oranges can be harvested after 3 years of planting..
How many orange trees can I plant per acre?
With a spacing of 6 x 6 meters, 110 orange plants can be planted.
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