Coconut tree brief introduction - The coconut tree is the only living species of the genus cocos. Coconut tree is the member of palm tree family (Arecaceae). Coconut trees grows tall and easily touches the height of 100 ft (30 mt). In fertile soil one healthy and tall coconut tree can produce upto 75 fruits per year but more often the coconut yield is less than 30. Coconut tree takes 6 to 10 years to produce the first fruit and it takes 15 – 20 years to reach the peak.
- 1 Major coconut producing states in India
- 2 coconut tree project report
- 3 Price of 1 coconut plant
- 4 Coconut tree varieties
- 5 Soil required for coconut tree
- 6 Land preparation for planting coconut tree
- 7 Coconut tree planting distance
- 8 Pests and disease management in coconut
- 9 Harvesting and yields of coconut
- 10 Loans and subsidies for coconut farming
- 11 Coconut health benefits
- 12 Coconut tree farming FAQ
- 12.1 1. When coconut tree gives coconut?
- 12.2 2. How many fruits are produced by 1 coconut tree?
- 12.3 3. How much time coconut tree takes to deliver more fruits?
- 12.4 4. How many years does a coconut tree live?
- 12.5 5. Is coconut the tree of life?
- 12.6 6. How many different types of coconut trees are there?
- 12.7 7. What is the average height of coconut tree in India?
- 12.8 8. What is the weight of the coconut?
- 12.9 9. What are some dwarf coconut tree varieties?
Major coconut producing states in India
Coconut production occurs in more than 90 countries. India is a big coconut producer and produces 12 million tonnes per year. Top coconut producing states in India are Tamil Nadu (33.84%), Odisha, Kerala, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Puducherry, Gujarat, West Bengal, Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar.
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coconut tree project report
Coconuts cost per acre
Price of 1 coconut plant is between Rs 80 to Rs 120
In one acre of land if we are planting 120 plants (depends on spacing)
Rs 80 x 120 plants = Rs 9600
Manure and fertilizer - Rs 6000
Irrigation - Rs 5000
Labour charges - Rs 15,000
Extra sand (1 load) - Rs 2000
Plant protection charges - Rs 2000
Other cost total = Rs 30,000
Add planting material cost i.e Rs 9600
Rs 30,000 + Rs 9600 = Rs 39,600
Total Cost for 1st year = Rs 39,600
Note - Drip irrigation cot is not included, drip irrigation installation cost is around Rs 50,000 you can add it accordingly.
To get the cost for next 5 years we have to find the cost of 2nd year then multiply it by 5 and then add it with the first year cost.
To get 2nd year cost reduce plant material cost, some labour cost, sand cost from the first year cost
2nd year cost = Rs 39600 - Rs 2000 (sand) - Rs 9600 (planting cot) - Rs 10,000 (labour cost) = Rs 21600
Rs 21600 + Rs 2000 (harvesting charge) = Rs 23600
Rs 23600 is the cost for 2nd year, for next 5 year multiply 2nd year cost by 5
5 year cost= Rs 23600 (2nd year cost) x 5 years = Rs 118000
Total cost = 1st year cost + 5 year cost
Total cost = Rs 39,600 + Rs 1,18,000 = Rs 157600
Total Cost for 6 years = Rs 157600
Note - coconut fruit starts bearing fruit after 6 years therefore profit will start after six years hence, mix cropping is advised to generate regular income for survival.
Now lets calculate
Coconut farming profit per acre
The coconut yield price is between Rs 25 to Rs 50
In Delhi the price of 1 coconut varies between Rs 50 to Rs 80 per piece
1 coconut tree can produce 35 nuts after 6 year of planting
Coconuts per acre
if 150 trees are planted in 1 acre then
150 trees x 35 nuts = 5250 nuts
If the price of single coconut is Rs 50 (according to region)
Rs 50 x 5250 nuts = 262500
Profit = Rs 262500
Net profit = profit - cost
Net Profit - Rs 262500 - Rs 157600 = Rs 104900
Net Profit = Rs 104900
Note - Profit may differ according to the location and nut price. In Delhi and Uttarakhand 1 coconut price is between Rs 50 to Rs 80 according to the season. Whereas the nut price may go down by Rs 25 in South regions like Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu etc.
Price of 1 coconut plant
Rs 80 to 100, Rs 120 if you are purchasing a single plant then you may get it between Rs 100 to Rs 120 and if you are purchasing plants in bulk then you may get it between Rs 80 to 90 according to your region and market.
How much coconut in one tree per year
A good and healthy coconut tree can produce around 80 coconuts per year but more often 35 coconuts are produced by 1 coconut tree per year.
Coconut tree varieties
Mainly tall and dwarf are two types of coconut varieties cultivated in coconut farming. Hybrid coconut variety is also cultivated; this variety depends on the count of labour and water.
Tall variety of coconut
- Some of the tall varieties of coconut tree are chandrakalpa, west coast tall , kera sagra, tiptur tall, aliyar nagar 1, VPM3, Philippines ordinary
- Tall varieties of coconut live up to 80 to 90 years.
- Best soil for coconut tree lateritic soil, red loam soil, littoral sands.
- They are disease resistant varieties of coconut tree and easily grown at the height of 3000 ft above sea level.
- Tall coconut tree bears medium to big size coconut
- Coconut fruit color varies from green, yellow, orange, brown.
- The coconut tree height in meters is around 15 to 18 meter in India whereas (wikipedia link) Cocos nucifera is a large coconut palm tree that grows up to 30 m (100ft) tall with 4-6 m long leaves and 60 – 90 cm long pinnae.
Dwarf variety of coconut tree
- Some of the dwarf coconut tree varieties are chowghat green dwarf, chowghat orange dwarf, coconut tree dwarf yellow variety,
- Dwarf coconut tree height is around 5 to 7 meter
- Dwarf coconut palm tree bears coconut fruits earlier than tall coconut palm trees.
- The average life of dwarf coconut tree is between 40 to 50 years.
- The weight of the fruit is around 85 g
- Dwarf coconut fruit contains nearly 85 % of oil.
Hybrid variety of coconut tree
- Some of the hybrid coconut tree varieties are kerasanakara, chandralaksha, keraganga, kerasree, chandrasankara, anandaganga, VHC 1, VHC 2, VHC 3.
- Hybrid variety is produced by crossing two high quality morphological forms of coconut
- Hybrid coconut palm trees are known for early flowering and early fruit set.
- This variety is capable of higher copra production.
Soil required for coconut tree
Soil requirement for coconut - Soil ph for coconut tree should be 5.2 to 8.6 whereas the type of soil for coconut tree is laterite soil, alluvial and red sandy loam. Water holding capacity soil is preferred in coconut cultivation.
Climate required for coconut
The temperature required for coconut farming is 27° C whereas humidity should be around 80 % to 85 % while coconut farming humidity should not go below 60 %
Land preparation for planting coconut tree
Land preparation for coconut tree - ploughing is usually done before planting any plant in this case you can do slight ploughing then remove unwanted tiny stones from the planting area. Then cleaning needs to be done of the whole farm. Ridge planting is done when the groundwater level is high. Pre monsoon is the best time for planting coconut plants and you can plant within May - June so that plants can thrive quickly. However, you can plant coconut plants in April and September as well but you should arrange better irrigation options.
Dig the pits of 3 x 3 x 3 ft then fill these pits with FYM, sand and red earth soil, increase the height of the soil up to 55 - 60 cm within the pit then plant the coconut seedlings in the centre and press the soil correctly with both hands or soil tool.
Coconut tree planting distance
Coconut tree planting spacing - coconut tree plantation distance should be calculated to avoid unequal water distribution and overlapping of the trees with each other overlapping can reduce the growth of the plants and is also responsible for less fruit, late fruit bearing
- Spacing is divided in three types according to the coconut plant variety. Have a look -
- Coconut tree spacing (tall variety) - 7.5 x 7.5 m
- Hybrid coconut spacing - 8.5 m x 8.5 m
- Dwarf coconut tree spacing - dwarf coconut spacing should be 6.5 m x 6.5 m
Coconut tree plantation per acre
In coconut farming triangular, square, single hedge and double hedge planting format is used. One can plant between 80 to 200 plants according to spacing.
Propagation methods of coconut
Coconut plants are grown by seed nuts and for that, you must select a good quality mother coconut plant some of the features of the mother plant are given below have a look.
- Select the disease-free tree
- The tree should produce fruits regularly
- The age of the tree should be between 25 years to 40 years.
- You should choose a high yielding variety that can produce nearly 80 to 100 nuts yearly.
- Copra weight should be around 150 g
- Nuts from the tree should be over 600 g
Water irrigation method for coconut treesDon’t use single-channel irrigation instead use main or sub-channel irrigation.
You can choose a better irrigation option accordingly among drip irrigation, water sprinkler for coconut trees. Drip irrigation is helpful while saving water it can save 30 to 40 % of water which results in good yield performance.
Look at the basin irrigation requirements in Tamil Nadu under normal conditions - Feb to May 410 I/6 days, Jan, Aug, Sep 410 I/7 days and June - July, oct-dec 410I/9 days.
Pests and disease management in coconut
Pests and disease in coconut trees - Remove the diseased and dead parts of the plant then destroy them. Provide sufficient irrigation, use some medicinal plants while mix cropping so that coconut yield can get rid of unwanted disease and pests. While mix cropping you can plant neem tree twigs and while fertilizing use neem tree leaves as fertilizer you can also spread some sacks of neem leaves in your coconut farm it will provide shield protection to your plant from various pests and insects. The use of turmeric is also a good option for intercropping.
Pests and disease in coconut trees
Pest in coconut tree - coconut eriophyid mite, red palm weevil, leaf-eating caterpillar, coconut skipper, coreid bug, bagworm, white grub, termite, lacewing bug, scale insect, mealybug, rat, nut borer, nematodes, palm civet, rhinoceros beetle.
Disease in coconut tree - Tanjore wilt, leaf rot, grey leaf spot, leaf rot, stem bleeding, crown chocking, leaf blight
Harvesting and yields of coconut
Tall and dwarf trees can be harvested 8 times annually. 11 month old nuts are used for coir making due to good fiber quality. For making copra 12 month old nuts are harvested in an interval of 30 to 45 days.
Three types of harvesting methods are
- Power tiller operated ladder
- Climbing cycle
Loans and subsidies for coconut farming
Coconut Development Board is responsible for new schemes, subsidies and loans for coconut farming.
Coconut health benefits
Coconut is used for its water, milk, meat and oil. Some of the health benefits of coconut are given below: Please have a look -
- Eating coconut may improve good cholesterol levels.
- Coconut consumption help to decrease belly fat.
- Coconut works as an antioxidant due to phenolic compounds present in coconut meat.
- It is easy to add to your diet.
- Coconut oil is high in MCTs.
- Coconut is good for heart health.
- Due to MCTs coconut may reduce hunger.
- MCTs present in coconut oil may reduce seizures
- Coconut oil may raise HDL (good) cholesterol.
- Coconut oil is helpful to protect your skin, hair and teeth.
- Coconut may boost brain function in Alzheimer's disease.
- Coconut are high in fiber which helps in keeping digestive system healthy.
- Coconut is helpful in stabilizing blood sugar.
- Coconuts are good for immune system.
- Due to MCTs it may benefit your brain.
Coconut tree farming FAQ
1. When coconut tree gives coconut?
Coconut tree can produce first fruit after 6 years however; it may take 10 years in some cases.
2. How many fruits are produced by 1 coconut tree?
A tall and healthy coconut tree can produce around 75 coconuts but mostly coconut trees produces around 35 coconuts per tree.
3. How much time coconut tree takes to deliver more fruits?
Coconut tree takes more than 15 to 20 years to reach the peak production of coconuts
4. How many years does a coconut tree live?
Coconut tree bears first fruit between 6-10 years and lives 60-70 years.
5. Is coconut the tree of life?
Yes, due to full of energy properties and easy to digest nature it is recommended to every patient after major operation by the doctors hence, we can say the coconut is tree of life. Coconut water is also used as coconut water detox drink and coconut health benefits are not hidden from us some of the coconut benefits are given in other section click here to reach directly to coconut water benefits or scroll up.
6. How many different types of coconut trees are there?
Before starting coconut cultivation the question often raises that how many types of coconut tree exists! However, tall and dwarf are two main types of coconut tree mostly cultivated in coconut farming but hybrid type of coconut tree can also be submitted in all types of coconut tree.
7. What is the average height of coconut tree in India?
Coconut tree height in India is between 15 to 18 meter. However, Cocos nucifera is a taller coconut palm tree of 30m tall.
8. What is the weight of the coconut?
Weight of full sized coconut fruit is about 1.4kg
9. What are some dwarf coconut tree varieties?
Some of the dwarf coconut palm tree varieties are coconut tree dwarf yellow variety, green dwarf coconut tree variety, chowghat orange dwarf coconut tree, chowghat green dwarf coconut tree.