Rubber tree information and best farming practices are given here. These trees need 6 to 7 years to produce results, and income from 1-acre land is huge by planting 500 trees. The tree is native to South America and the binomial name of the rubber tree is “Hevea Brasiliensis”. Rubber trees in Brazil are known as para rubber trees.
Rubber tree information
Growing rubber trees in America is a bit easy due to suitable weather and appropriate climate conditions. This might be one of the reasons that South American and Central American rubber trees are always in demand. A tree in a forest or wild tree grows 43 meters in height. Rubber cultivars used for cultivation are smaller because removing latex stunts their growth.
This tree has a stout trunk and swollen bottle shape with dark brown bark and it has three leaflets. The plant consists of separate male and female flowers with a pungent smell. Its flowers are creamy yellow in colour with no petals. Rubber tree fruits look like capsules consisting of three large seeds. After 3 to 4 years of planting trees, the taproot of the tree becomes 2 to 5 m long.
After ripening fruits automatically open and seeds are collected for sowing in the nursery. Rubber trees grow best in tropical and subtropical climates. This is one of the fastest growing trees in the world and is placed on the list of best commercial trees to grow.
Rubber Farming Project report
|This Project Report provides the estimated calculation for 7 years because generally rubber trees start producing results after 6 years.|
Rubber tree cost per acre
Plant cost = Rs 40 to Rs 100,
Rubber sapling price = let’s take Rs 77 for 1 plant
Rubber plantation per acre = 500 plants
Plants cost = Rs 77 x 500 plants = Rs 38,500
Fertilizer and manure = Rs 5000
Labour cost = Rs 10,000
Land preparation cost = Rs 15000
Spray and pesticides cost = Rs 6000
Bamboo fencing cost = Rs 25,000
Harvesting cost (latex collection) = Rs 35000
Latex processing cost = Rs 10,000
Miscellaneous cost = Rs 5000
Rubber plant cost for 1 year = Rs 149500
Now let’s calculate the cost for 7 years
First reduce 1-time investment i.e plant cost, fence cost, harvesting cost, land preparation cost from the total cost
Cost per acre for 7 years = Rs 38500 + Rs 25,000 + Rs 35,000 + Rs 15,000 – Rs 149500
Rubber tree cost per acre 7 years = Rs 149500 – Rs 1,13,500 = Rs 36000
Now multiply Rs 36,000 x 6 times = Rs 2,16,000
Rs 2,16,000 is the cost for 6 years
Now add the excluded cost to get the total cost for 7 years
Cost per acre for 7 years = Rs 2,16000 + Rs 149500
Rubber plant cost per acre for 7 years = Rs 365500
Rubber Tree Yield Per Acre
Rubber plants per acre = 500
Average yield per rubber tree = 9.50 kg (Rubber yield per tree)
Rubber tree yield per acre = 500 plants x 9.50 kg rubber yield
Yield per acre = 4750 kg yield per acre
Rubber price per kg = Rs 40 to Rs 100 accordingly
Let’s take the average price i.e Rs 60
Rubber profit per acre = Rs 60 x 4750 kg
Profit in 1 acre = Rs 285000
Net Profit =Rubber profit per acre – Rubber cost per acre
Net Profit = Rs 285000 – Rs 365500
Net Profit = – Rs 80,500
Net Profit after 6 years = Loss Rs 80,500
It means in the 7th year you will not get a profit instead Rs 80,500 loss is there but don’t worry after the 7th year you will be able to generate a good profit. Moreover, you can generate extra income by doing mixed cropping including coffee plants, coconut trees etc.
Note – The cost may vary according to the location, material cost, and availability.
For garden lovers – Self sufficient backyard
How to start rubber plantation
Growing rubber plants from cuttings and seeds is possible in a more enhanced way with the best farm management practices. One should be aware of the right temperature and conditions, correct plant spacing, soil testing, plants per acre and more don’t worry, all these steps are defined below step by step.
Latex and its properties
Latex is originally found in flowering plants such as rubber. Latex looks like a white liquid while obtaining latex from the tree and rubber particles dissolve in aqueous serum. Rubber content hydrocarbons present in the plant latex vary from 25 to 40%. Latex properties have four main fractions given below:
25 to 40 % rubber particles of similar shape, 6 nm to 5-micron size.
10 to 20 % lutoids size 0.5 nm to 3 microns are responsible to control the stability and flow of latex.
5 % frey wyssling particles helpful in coagulation and oxio reduction process.
Extra elements present in plant latex are: Resins, proteins, sugar, tannins, alkaloids, secondary metabolites, glycosides and mineral salts.
9 well-known varieties and these varieties contain latex in their bark.
Hevea camporum, Hevea guianensis, Hevea pauciflora, Hevea rigidifolia, Hevea spruceana, Hevea microphylla and Hevea nitida.
Some other cloned varieties of rubber are RRIM 600, PB 235, PB 217, PB 260, PB 300, PB 311, RRIM 628, RRIM 712, RRIM 901 and USM 1.
These trees can easily grow in tropical and subtropical climate conditions with 80% humidity and moderate wind conditions. 2000 mm annual rainfall is required for rubber cultivation.
Temperature required – 25 to 28 °C is the average tree temperature range. 80 per cent humid temperature is required for the growth of trees in a better way.
Temperature tolerance – The tree’s temperature tolerance capacity is up to 34 degrees Celsius.
Sunlight requirements – 6 hours a day of sunlight.
The tree needs deep and well-drained soil. Acidic soil, laterite loam or clay loam are the best soil for these plants. Well-drained soil with acidic and clay nature is the best soil for baby rubber plants.
Soil PH – 4.5 to 6.
Land should be cleared by cutting all the other trees. There should be a proper row formation for planting rubber plants. Cogon grass is the type of grass that can clog the growth of these trees so it should be removed completely. A couple of ploughing is necessary for a plain area before planning the layout of plants. Whereas hilly areas should be prepared for terracing.
Layout patterns for hilly and plain areas are classified differently according to the region’s requirements. With the purpose of maximum sunlight, the direction of the rows were tending to be east-west in the plain areas.
Rubber tree planting distance
The spacing is different for hilly areas and plain areas.
Distance for plain areas – 5 x 4 m (500 plants), 6 x 3 m with 555 plants, 7 x 3 m with 475 plants, 8 x 3 m with 416 plants.
Pit size in plain areas – dig 75 x 75 x 75 cm pits and fill all the pits with topsoil.
Distance for hilly areas – 9 x 2.5 m with 450 plants, 8 x 2.5 m with 500 plants, 10 x 2 m with 500 plants, 11 x 2 m with 455 plants, 8 x 3 m with 416 plants.
Pit size in hill regions – 120 cm in length, 45 cm in width and 60 cm in depth.
Avenue system – 12 x 2 m with 416 plants, 10 x 2 m with 500 plants, 11 x 2 m with 454 plants, 9 x 2.5 m with 444 plants.
Remember, press the soil around the plant with soft hands so that air can pass easily.
Propagatio can be practised through grafted budwood technique or through seeds. The seed propagation is performed in the month of July, and September on raised beds. Whereas 10-month-old grafted budwood is used for budwood propagation. The seed germination takes 6 to 10 days, seed should be watered regularly and protected from the sun in the initial days. Once the budwood reaches 1-year of maturity it develops green-brown bark, sharply removing the green portion of the bud up to 1 meter.
This tree needs consistent moisture but extra water can harm the plants and root rot may occur. Excess water can slow down the growth of the plants. Theses trees generally grow in sub-humid climates. In sufficient water may result in leaf falling problems, leaf injury and leaf scattered during summers. Rubber tree plantation needs 250 CM of rainfall on a yearly basis with no dry season. At least a hundred rainy days are required for its good growth.
Best fertilizer for rubber tree is given below with the ratio and time period.
Rubber tree fertilizer ratio for nursery seedlings – 25 kg compost and 2.5 kg rock phosphate per 100 m² provide once every 3 years.
NPK fertilizer for nursery seedlings – After 6 to 8 weeks of planting apply 25 kg NPK per 100 m².
During 1st year of planting – Fertilizer application for 8 months to 1-year plant should be 10 : 10 : 4 : 1.5 NPKMg @ 225 grams per plant.
During 2nd year – 2 applications of the above are applied @ 450 gram per plant.
During 3rd year – Same fertilizer application as 2nd year is applied.
Plants during tapping need NPK ratio as – 12 : 6 : 6 mixture @ 400 kg per hectare in 1 year.
Pest and disease control
Pest – Insects, nematodes, mealybug, grasshoppers, leaf and mining caterpillars, weevils, termites, cockchafer grub, molluscs and mites.
Control – Insecticides and pesticides to control the above disease are dicofol, melathon, chlorpyrifos, etc.
Disease – Diseases of rubber tree plants are powdery mildew, leaf fall, pink disease, leaf disease, leaf spot, pink disease, collar rot, stump rot, dry rot, bird’s eye spot, brown rot, charcoal rot, bark and patch cankers.
Rubber plant diseases can be controlled by fungicides, mancozeb, Bordeaux mixture sprays, carbendazim etc.
During the harvesting process rubber tree latex is collected and the collecting of latex is known as tapping. For the rubber tree tapping process, it is necessary for the tree to attain the required girth of the tree. Tree tapping age is considered 6 years only if it has achieved the required girth. The tree propagation from seedlings is expected to reach a height of 50 cm with 55 cm girth.
During the tree-tapping process, thin slices of tree bark are removed at certain intervals to collect the latex. Skilled labour is required for the tapping process, some rules need to be followed. These rules are given below step by step.
- Due to high turgor pressure, tapping is required to be done early in the morning.
- Tapping frequency – Every three or four days with intensity: d2-100%, d3-67%, d4-50%.
- 600 trees update in one cycle.
- From the point of union, the height of the cut should be 150 cm.
- Cut depth should infiltrate 1 mm thickness of the bark near the cambium.
- You can read the national rubber policy here.
Rubber latex yield per tree – 9.50 kg.
An average yield of rubber per acre – 300 kg.
Intercultural practices in agriculture for rubber tree
- In one year 5 to 7 numbers of weeding are required during the initial time of plant growth.
- Protect your plant from the weeds and keep up at least a 1.5 m area absolutely weed-free from the plants.
- Proper weed removal practice is necessary for rubber tree cultivation because weeds can fend off the growth of the trees.
- Thailand’s rubber production is high and one of the important reasons behind this is Thailand farmers apply the weed removal process continuously in a better way.
- After the rainy season, mulching is required on the rubber farm. You can choose rice or dry straw for the mulching process.
- Apply mulching to the 10-centimetre area from the base of the tree.
- After applying the mulch, cover the mulch material with a thin layer of soil.
- Pruning cutting is also required in the young days of the tree for quick growth and smooth trunk development with no branches and large scars.
- The plant stem needs to be pruned 2.5 to 3 m from the ground level.
- You can use the tree cutting machine to prune your 2 to 3 years old trees.
- To avoid fire on a farm cleaning the vegetation and debris around the 10-meter area of the tree is necessary, especially during the dry season.
You should choose suitable plants or crops for intercropping in rubber plantations that can generate good income.
Coconut trees, coffee plants, hot pepper and banana plants can be used as intercropping with rubber plants to generate extra income. Legume crops can be grown as cover crops during the initial years of rubber plantations. On a serious note mixed cropping advantages really help farmers to produce extra income. Farmers can generate Rs 545300 after 3 years from the coffee plants in 1 acre. By planting coconut trees as an intercrop farmers can generate extremely good income. The benefits of intercropping with legumes are decent in one acre.
Rubber tree economic importance
Rubber trees are a good example of commercial agriculture in South America. The tree is grown commercially in the world on a large scale and India is the fourth-largest producer in the world, contributing 9% to the global rubber market and producing good job opportunities in India. Its productivity is high in fewer areas, smallholding contributes more than large holdings.
The production in India ranges from 6 to 7 tons annually and generates an income of Rs 3000 crore. This cultivation is mostly done in the South India regions, especially commercial rubber cultivation in Kerala is done on a wide scale. Farmers in Assam, Tripura, and West Bengal are maintaining rubber tree farms for years. Farmers are doing its farming in Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Odisha widely. North states of India still need to practice this cultivation on a good scale.
Government schemes for rubber farming vastly helped to increase its production. Moreover, the use of farming technology with the best farming practices is helping farmers to produce a good rubber yield per acre in India. Its cultivation is growing because of the assistance provided by the ‘World Bank’ on the rubber development project.
It is considered that more than 400000 women work in rubber industry including farms in the entire country. Rubber businesses in India are already generating a large number of employment, especially among women, and it has great potential for restoring the ecology. However, rubber plantations in USA are not as large as in Thailand and Vietnam but still, USA farmers are growing it passionately.
Name 5 top rubber producing countries?
Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam, and India.
Rubber plantation is famous in which country?
Thailand, Malaysiam, Indonesia.
Where is the largest rubber plantation in the world?
South Thailand region.
How many rubber trees per acre should I plant?
350-500 rubber plants per acre.
What is latex in rubber plants?
Latex is the milky white liquid emulsion found in the cells of flowering plants such as rubber plants.
How many years to harvest rubber trees?
After 6 years farmers can harvest the rubber tree.
What is the average yield of rubber per hectare?
375 kg per hectare from the seedling, budded plantlets can increase the yield up to 900 – 1000 kg per hectare.
How many rubber per tree?
Average yield of rubber per tree is 9.50 kg.
Name the top 5 rubber producing states in India?
Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Assam, Meghalaya, Nagaland.
What are the best trees to grow for profit?
Mahogany tree, Agar tree, Sandalwood tree.
Teak wood farming profit per acre
Mahogany tree farming in India PDF