Tuberose is the bulbous flowering plant that is cultivated for precious flower spikes. It is a herbaceous plant that grows from tuberous roots. Herbaceous are vascular plants that don't have woody stems above ground. Tuberose is well known as rajanigandha or nishigandha and it is native to central and southern Mexico city. Tuberose flowers are precious and produce oil. Tuberose oil is heavily used in the perfume industry apart from this the loose flowers are used in decorations and functions including religious functions. Therefore this plant provides vital business opportunities and commercial tuberose cultivation in India can be a turning point to a small farmer's life because nishigandha has a strong local market demand. It is being sold by big companies in various forms.
Tuberose plant description
- Tuberose leaves color - dull green
- Tuberose leaves height - 1ft - 1.5 ft (30-50cm)
- Leaves width - 0.5 inc (13 mm) at the base
- Spikes, waxy flowers height - 3 ft (1m)
- Tubular tube height - 2.5 inch (6cm)
The leaves of tuberose look dull green and grow at the height of 1ft to 1.5 ft long with a 13 mm wide base. They are a bit succulent and have an inflorescence spike reaching up to 3 ft tall with pure white waxy flowers. Inflorescence is a cluster of flowers arranged on a stem connected to the main branch. The flowers are actually tubular that contain tubes upto 6 cm long. The Nishigandha flower tube contains 6 stamens inserted into the tube of the flowers. Stamen is the organ of a flower that produces pollen. The plant is in the list of most important tropical ornaments.
- Tuberose belongs to the Asparagaceae family.
- It is also known as Tuberosa amika medik.
- Botanical name - polianthes tuberosa L.
Rajanigandha farming project report
Tuberose farming cost
- 1 acre 20,000 - 30,000 tuberose seeds (tuber or rhizome)
- Planting material cost - 1 tuber price Rs 1.50 - Rs 2
- Rs 2 x 20,000 seeds = Rs 40,000
- Land preparation cost - Rs 10,000
- Fertilizer cost - Rs 14,000
- Spray cost - Rs 4,000
- Irrigation cost - Rs 15,000
- Miscellaneous cost - Rs 5,000
- Total cost = Rs 88,000
Rajanigandha farming profit
- Price of 1 tuberose stick in market varies between Rs 2 to Rs 10 and more
- Let's take the minimum price rs 2
- In 1 year you can harvest rajnigandha plant 3-4 times (for 3 years)
- Therefore 20,000 (seeds) x 3 = 60,000 plants (in 1 year)
- Selling price of 1 tuberose stick varies between Rs 2, Rs 4, Rs 5, Rs 10 and more accordingly.
- Let's take minimum selling price i.e Rs 2
- 60,000 sticks x Rs 2 = Rs 120,000
- Now reduce rajnigandha cost from the rajnigandha profit
- Net profit = Rs 120,000 - Rs 88,000
- Net profit = Rs 32,000 for first year
For next 2-3 years reduce plantation cost i.e Rs 40,000
Therefore reduce only 48k instead of 88k (total cost)
Rs 120,000 - 48,000 = Rs 72,000
Rs 72k will be your profit for each 2nd and 3rd year.
Note - Price may vary according to the market, place and current rate. Tuberose flower crop is able to deliver flowers for at least 3 years. Rs 50-100 per kg loose flowers you can add them as well.
How to start to tuberose cultivation
To start tuberose cultivation you need to follow the below given steps soil, climate, temperature, water, land depression, fortaleza, disease, pests etc
Tuberose Indian name
- Rajnigandha - Hindi
- Nelasampengi - Telugu
- Nila sampangi - Tamil
- Sugandhraja - Kannada
- Gul shabbo - Urdu
- Gulcheri - Marathi
Varieties of tuberose
- Rajat Rekha - single flowered
- Single Mexican - Single flowered
- Shringar tuberose- Single flowered
- Svarna Rekha - Double flowered
- Suvasini - Double flowered
- Pearl is the double flowered popular variety that grows at the height of 2.5 ft.
Climate requirement for tuberose cultivation
Tuberose prefers open sunny locations to grow in a better way. This plant hates the shadow of trees so it is better to plant them in an open space away from any shadow. Although it requires a hot and humid climate, flowering occurs in a placid climate.
- Temperature required for a tuberose crop is between 20° C to 32° C.
- Tuberose can grow in hardiness zones 8-10
Tuberose plant spacing
- 30 x 30 cm and 1 lakh plants can be planted per hectare.
- 20 x 20 cm 20 to 50 thousand bulbs can be planted in 1 acre.
Tuberose bulbs of 2.1 cm diameter are suitable for planting. Rajanigandha bulbs are cut into 2-3 parts and planted into the land.
Tuberose soil requirements
Sandy, loamy soil are the best soil for tuberose crops. However, high saline, alkaline soil conditions are best for commercial cultivation of tuberose crop.
Tuberose soil ph
Soil pH of 6.5 to 7.5 is preferable for tuberose farming. Commercial growers of tuberose can go for soil tests to select the most appropriate soil for rajanigandha farming in India.
Water requirements for nishigandha farming
Water logging is one of the main problems of nishigandha flower farming in marathi language waterfall regions. So, you have to select the land where the water drainage system works properly.
Irrigation in tuberose crop cultivation
Irrigation in tuberose - Irrigation needs to be done immediately after rajnigandha plantation in order to place them on the field so that they can get a good amount of moisture that is necessary for the growth. Rajnigandha or nishigandha plants are such plants that love humidity therefore they are mostly grown in warm regions and at least four regular warm months are necessary for the continuous and good growth of the nishigandha crop.
tuberose irrigation classification
- Summer’s April to June - irrigation required on a weekly basis.
- During winters - irrigation required in the intervals of 10 days.
- Note - Irrigation of tuberose depends on soil type and climate conditions.
Tuberose fertilizer recommendations
Tuberose bulb fertilizer classification
Farmyard Manure (FMY) - 20 to 25 tonnes/ha required during land preparation.
Fertilizer dose recommended per hectare
200 kg N
50 kg P2o5
70 kg k2o
Note - from the above given figures 100 kg nitrogen and the full quantity of P and k needs to be applied as a basal dose. Divide N in two parts and apply in a 30 days interval.
Land preparation for farming tuberose
Soil preparation for tubers - A couple of ploughing is necessary before tuberose plantation. During the ploughing process weed removal should be done and don't forget to throw the tiny stones outside the rajnigandha farm. It is necessary to have continuous weeding in the field. Generally, tuberose plantation takes place during the months of January and February. Dig the pits for nishigandha flower plantation in equal distance then expose the pits to direct sunlight to kill the small insects and weeds. After ploughing you should immediately provide the rotten FYM to the soil. Well rotted farmyard manure @ 20-25 tonnes / hectare need to be selected for mixing up with the soil after the ploughing process.
Intercultural operations in tuberose cultivation
For regular and healthy plant growth it is necessary to perform intercultural operations during nishigandha cultivation.
Weed control in tuberose cultivation
Weed control is one of the basic and epochal problems in the farming of tuberose. Some needful steps are recommended below please follow these steps for high yield.
- Make a proper timetable for a monthly weed removal process.
- Weeding should be practiced every 15 days.
- Manual weeding is necessary in regular intervals of 10-15 days.
- Hoeing process is necessary for losing the soil and uprooting the weeds.
- Hoeing needs to be done in regular intervals.
- Weed control by using chemicals - weeds are controlled by using certain chemicals called Alachlor, Pendimenthalin, Metachlor weedicide
These chemical applications need to be applicable in the below given quantity.
- Alachlor @2kg/ha
- Pendimethalin @1.25 kg/ha
- Metachlor @2 kg /ha
Disease and pests of ornamental plants
Disease of tuberose
- Stem rot
- Sclerotial wilt
- Botrytis spot and blight
Pests in tuberose
- Bud borer
- Red spider mites
Harvesting of tuberose
Tuberose are majorly cultivated for flower spikes and loose flowers. One can perform tuberose harvesting after 100-120 days of planting. Tuberose flowers mostly bloom from August to September in full swing. While harvesting after 1-2 pairs of flowers open in the spike tuberose spikes are being cut from the bottom. Individual Blossoms from the bottom are picked early in the morning and a sharp knife is used to perform the task clearly.
Tuberose health benefits
- Prevention of Anemia
- Helpful for treating cataract symptoms
- Helpful to give relief from strep throat
- Tuberose provide relaxation
- Useful in insomnia
- Increases stamina
- Help to improve immune system
- Mixture of ginger, tuberose flower and garlic leaves are helpful in influenza or cold.
Tuberose cultivation in India FAQ
How long does it take for tuberose to bloom?
Tuberose needs 4 warm months for blooming flowers from the time the rhizome is planted.
What is the rajanigandha plantation time?
February to March is the best time to plant Rajnigandha, however you can also plant this crop in April.
How to grow Rajanigandha bulbs faster?
The application of CCC in 5000ppm and GA in 1000ppm results in early flowering. It is also helpful to increase the quality of blossoms.
Tuberose flower price per kg?
Tuberose flower price varies between Rs 80 to Rs 100 and more accordingly.