Tobacco farming is one of the most profitable farming but at the same time it demands for good amount of labour so in this blog post I will help you to under stand the concept of tobacco farming including cost and project report.
Lets dive in deeper
How to start tobacco farming is a common question and everyone is searching for the appropriate answer so here is the solution about this sustainable farming.
Briefing - India is in top 4 Countries in tobacco production. India has 7 tobacco research centres few of them are located in Andhra Pradesh, Guntur, Jeelugumilli, Kandukuru, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Karnataka. Tobacco is used in making beedis(bidi), shruti, khaini, cigar, cigarette, hukkah etc.
Price of one kg tobacco
1 kg tobacco price varies between Rs 160-220- 240
Whereas, purchasing it in tonnes or 20-30 kg you may get it at the price of Rs100-118
Profit in 1 acre land
After decreasing your investment including labour cost you can still earn at least 1.5 - 2 lakh from one acre land. However, it will depend on the current market price and the price is increasing day by day.
From where to buy tobacco plants
You can purchase tobacco plants from nursery and they are also available in various plant related shops. You can purchase seeds and then make your own nursery at your home back yard they will take 35 to 45 days to grow then transplant these plants in the cultivation land.
Where tobaccos are grown easily
Tobacco is usually germinated in cold frames and after getting mature it is transplanted to the fields. It is a crop of warm climate hence needed warm region and in India it is mostly grown in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Rajasthan, West Bengal, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh (immense cultivation), Uttar Pradesh, Guntur is famous for tobacco cultivation.
Note - Cold frame is a transparent roofed enclosure, cold frame is used in initial days to protect the tiny plant from adverse weather and sunlight.
Tobacco Cultivation in India and other states
Tobacco farming is a sustainable farming but it needs much care while growing period.
How much time tobacco takes to grow mature
Tobacco usually takes 100-120 days to grow mature and gets ready for harvesting and selling it in the market.
Labour required in tobacco cultivation
Labour is required as per your farm area in one acre land you may need good number of labours during harvesting period because in harvesting the whole plant is not harvested instead of that single leaf need to be pick carefully by labours moreover, one plant is consist of 8-12 leaves and if you have above 10,000 plants then imagine the task.
Land preparation for tobacco farming
You should prepare it before 1 month. In India it is germinated after wheat harvesting. Ploughing is necessary to maintain the field and harrowing is recommended for the same. You can use a rotavator to re maintain the farm soil so that it could become friable. Then water it properly after that feed your land with organic fertilizer including good amount of cow dung try vermicomposting as well. Later you can use pesticides as per requirement of the plant but you should try organic first.
Spacing in between tobacco plants - Plant to plant and line to line distance will be 20 to 22 inch approximately
Whether required for tobacco farming
It is cultivated in warm climates. 20 to 30° C temperature is required for the plant It is planted as cauliflower is planted
Soil required in tambaku farming
However it is soil friendly and can be grown in any soil. As other crops, tobacco also likes rich and well drained soil. Try to make soil friable with the help of plough, for good results soil should be mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids and organisms. You should use vermicomposting to make your soil more fertile. However, chemicals are used to achieve short term goal but try to replace them by organic for long term goals.
Water required in the cultivation of tobacco - In growing stages it need 49.50 mm and 53.50 mm while in mature stage it need water about 61.60 and 152.20 mm. You can use drip irrigation to supply proper water.
In which season tobacco plants are planted - Tobacco plants were planted in the month of oct- nov. The plant leaf is used to make tobacco and in initial days farmer picks few leaves and only 8-10 leaves were remained and those were use to prepare tobacco, it is done for better results.
Organizations - Food and Agriculture organization of the United Nation.
Fertilizer required for tobacco cultivation
- 7-8 trollies of cow dung is needed in 1 acre land
- 1.5 sacks dap in 1 acre land
- It means 75 kg dap and 7 to 8 trollies of cow dung is utilized
- You can also use NPK
- Use spot spreader seed shaker
Caring of tobacco
- You need to protect the plant in initial days from adverse whether
- You can use cold frame to protect the plant.
- In winters it may get infected in which plant leaves get holes on them
- Use a medicine called benomyl 50 wp to rescue the infection
- Mix 2 gram benomyl per litre water
- The leaves of the plant sells in market so protect the leaves from small insects.
- First leave may die so take care of other leaves and proper pruning is necessary for better growth of the remaining leaves.
- At least 8 - 10 leaves are good for one plant you should pick up the unwanted and extra leaf.
Watch the video for tobacco leaf infection and solution
- Tobacco plant needs proper topping and suckering. Topping is the process of removal of tobacco flowers and suckering is the pruning process of unproductive leaves.
- Both procedures were performed for better growth of plant leaves and later the large leaves were easily sold in the market.
- Cropping, pulling and priming are the methods that are used for removing mature leaves from the tobacco plants.
- Sand lugs - The most difficult leaves of the plant it becomes more difficult to take care of the leaf while showers because the sand lugs are those leaves that are grown at the bottom of the plant and are touched with sand or mud hence are called sand lugs.
Top producers of tobacco
- United States
Problems in tobacco production
- Child labor - The international labor office reported that most children were used as a labor in agriculture. In 2014 human rights released a report detailing child labor on US.
- Profit - Although it is a huge profit making farming but somehow large tobacco companies inhales all the advantage and earns more profit.
- Pesticides - Tobacco production requires the vital use of pesticides and large tobacco companies are using access amount of chemicals to grow the crops bigger and in less time. Tobacco often harm farmers especially child labor because they are un aware of the health effects and hardly follow any protocol while using pesticides. It may increase a child's life long health issue.
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