Today, we will help you to understand the pig farming investment and requirements so that you can make your pig farming business plan. Farmers who are interested in commercial pig farming should read the post deeply. We have shared a pig farming project report including cost and profit margins.
- 1 Pig farming introduction
- 2 Why pig farming is profitable
- 3 Intensive pig farming
- 4 How to start pig farming business in India
- 5 Pig feed ingredients in India
- 6 Pig housing structures
- 7 Breeding pigs for profit
- 8 Pig care and management
- 9 Pros and Cons
- 10 Is pig farming a profitable business?
- 11 Pig farming FAQ
- 12 Pig farming project Report
Pig farming introduction
What is pig farming – Pig farming is also known as hog farming. Pig farming contains the raising and breeding of domestic pigs as livestock. It comes under animal husbandry, pigs are mainly farmed for food purposes such as pork, gammon, bacon and skins.
Types of pig farming systems – Some of the different pig farming methods are intensive commercial units, commercial free-range enterprises and extensive farming. Intensive pig farming is a modern system and one of the best pig farming methods.
Pig production worldwide – Some of the top pig producing countries are European Union (Uk excluded), the United States, Brazil, Russia, Myanmar, Vietnam, Mexico, Canada and the Philippines. In India, Uttara Pradesh is the largest pig producing state.
Pig farming benefits – While starting pig farming a question comes to mind that how to make money from pig farming then you need to know that pigs are farmed for multipurpose. However, the majority of pigs are used as human food in the form of meat, pork, bacon and gammon but at the same time pigs are also supplied for skin, fats and some other materials for use as clothes, cosmetics, medicinal uses, ingredients for processed foods. Due to pig oil benefits, the oil has a very good demand in the medicinal industry for bones, hair etc.
Pig farming is one of the most popular forms of livestock. Developed countries like the USA, Russia, Vietnam performs commercial pig farms in which thousand of pigs were kept in climate-controlled buildings. In 1758 domestic pig was called scrofa domestica by Carl Linnaeus.
Why pig farming is profitable
Is pig farming profitable – Pig farming is a low investment and less caring business in comparison to other livestock farming businesses like goat farming, cow farming, snail farming etc. Pigs are domesticated hoofed animals. compared to other species pigs are fast growers and can contribute to a faster economic return to the farmers due to higher productivity, better feed adaptation capacity, early maturity. Moreover, pigs require a small investment in building and equipment, one can use the corner portion of their agricultural land for such kind of farming by preparing a handmade shade. The reproductive rate is very in pigs which are approximately 5-15 piglets at a time. Due to immense growth in numbers, one needs sufficient feed for this non-stop growing breed. The pig gestation period falls between 115 to 122 days.
Intensive pig farming
Intensive pig farm – This type of pig farming is the most popular type of farming due to the capability of raising a large number of pigs in a small place and that is in a very cost-efficient manner. intensive pig farms are also known as pig factory and it is the preferred method of pig production. In this method, grower pigs are kept indoors in group housing or straw lined shades. Moreover, pregnant female pigs are housed in gestation crates or pens and give birth in farrowing crates.
Intensive pig farming populariy
Intensive pig farming is a worldwide popular method adopted by most countries some of them are given below:
- Intesive pig farming Australia
- Intensive pig farming UK
- Intensive pig farming Ireland
- Intensive pig farming Denmark
- Intensive pig farming USA
How to start pig farming business in India
People often ask how to start a commercial pig farm in their region! The answer is to start a pig farming business in Nigeria, Uganda, Kenya, South Africa, Philippines or India you need to follow the basic steps including land selection, best pig breed selection, pig feed chart, pig housing systems etc. All the necessary requirements to start a pig farming business are given below:
Select a suitable land
- Suitable land selection is the key role in pig farming which can reduce a big amount straight away.
- Farmer can select a side portion of his farm this will result in no or cheap land cost for pig farming.
- Land should be clean and fresh water sufficient to avoid unwanted diseases in pigs.
- Land near rural area can be cheaper and one can get low cost labor as well.
- Market should be near the farming place so that you can buy necssary materials and sell your products easily.
- Availibilty of vaternity services and good tranportation can result in profitable farming.
Best pig breeds for small farm
- First select best pig breeds for commercial farming.
- By selecting best commercial pig breeds you can expect higher returns.
- You need to target best pig breeds for meat or pork.
- Best pig breeds for commercial farming are discussed below in detail.
Best commercial pig breeds
Some of the best pig breeds for commercial farming in India are given below
Yorkshire pig breed characteristics – This is a white-coloured breed (Large white Yorkshire) large in size with a dished face, erect ears and bib cock of medium length. This breed is extremely used for crossbreeding due to some superior results for both rearing and raising pigs. The male pig is known as adult boar whereas the female pig is called an adult sow. The weight of the male pig is between 300 – 400 kg and the female pig weight is between 230 to 320 kilograms.
Hampshire pig breed characteristics – Hampshire pig breed is medium in size and are mainly used for commercial purposes. This pig breed is black in colour with a thick heavy body. Male Hampshire pig weight is nearly 320 kg and Hampshire female pig weight is around 250 kilograms. This breed is highly used for the meat production business.
Landrace pig characteristics – The landrace pig breed is quite popular for the meat production business and are one of the best commercial pig breeds. This breed contains drooping ears, long snout with black skin spots on the body. They are long in size and are extremely well in crossbreeding. An adult landrace pig weight for a male pig is approximately 270 to 360 kg and an adult sow weight is 200 to 320 kg.
Ghungru pig characteristics – ghungroo pigs have high maturing power and are used for meat production. This pig species is a low-cost pig species and are maintained with less effort. This breed has high reproductive power and can easily give birth to 7-14 young pigs weighing 1 kilogram each.
Pig feed ingredients in India
Pig feeding in India – For commercial pig farming you should prepare a pig feeding chart by age and this pig feed chart will help in better results. For pig feeding equipment you can purchase some pig feeding bowls, trays, piglets, buckets etc. Before preparing pig feeding formula remember animal growth, health and reproduction rate depends on the quality and the nutritious food supply.
Pig feed ingredients uk – Some of the economic ingredients are considered as grains, maize, shorgum, rice, wheat and some other millets. Feed your pigs with green legumes, freshwater
Protein supplement – fish meal, cakes, vitamins, meat meals and minerals. Apart from this 11 milligrams per 1 kg of antibiotic supplement can be added. It is advised to feed your pigs with age, weight and sufficient nutrients.
Pig housing structures
Pig housing plans – Pig housing requirements should be fulfilled and comfortable housing can result in good pig production meaning successful pig farming. Don’t mix other species provide proper ventilation, heat lamp use is necessary for winters to keep the pigs warm. The use of a straw to prepare pig beds is quite useful to keep the environment warm. Provide proper spacing accordingly and don’t think that pigs are unhygienic so do take care of hygiene it will result in less disease and better pig health automatically higher production of pigs. Due to dry environment pigs can lose weight of around 5 kg so do take care of pigs in summer in a more vigilant manner.
Pig housing according to a class of pig
|Pig category||Pig housing requirements|
|Boar||Floor area per pig (m²) = 6.25-7.6|
|(Boar or hog – male pig of breeding age)||Open yard area per pig (m²) = 8.8-12.0|
|Water required per pig = 42-46 liters|
|Farrowing||Floor area per pig (m²) = 7.5-9.0|
|(Farrowing – giving birth)||Open yard area per pig (m²) = 8.8-12|
|Water required per pig = 17-23 liters|
|Weaner||Floor area per pig (m²) = 0.95-1.7|
|(A young pig recently separated from the sow)||Open yard area per pig (m²) = 8.8-12.0|
|Water required per pig = 3-4 liters|
|Drysow||Floor area per pig (m²) = 1.7-2.8|
|Open yard area per pig (m²) = 1.5-1.8|
|Water required per pig = 4.5-5 liters|
Breeding pigs for profit
Breeding pigs for sale – Select 8 to 9 months old male and female pigs for crossbreeding process. After 8 to 9 months both pigs weigh between 100 to 200 kg. Female pig heat period lasts 3 days and the first day is best for the breeding of the gilt and the second is best for so2 to 10 days of the sow. Female pig (sow) breeds again after 2-10 days of weaning moreover, the period of gestation (pregnancy) of pigs is approximately 110 days and 7 to 13 piglets can be produced at a time.
Pig care and management
Pig caring is necessary to keep them away from disease for good pork production. Don’t feed all the pigs for breeding purposes instead you should divide them and utilize some pigs for breeding and some for another purpose. To prevent swine flue they should be vaccinated at the age of 2 to 4 weeks. Caring is necessary for all piglets, pregnant sows and breeding boar, however extra care is needed for sows during the lactation period and also provide proper nutritious food. Maintain the calmness of the pig farm and avoid unnecessary visitors.
Pig diseases and treatment
- Common pig diseases – Swine brucellosis, piglet scours, piglet anaemia and leptospirosis. These diseases can be controlled by vaccination and antibiotics.
- Porcine health management – Itching, rubbing, scratching, dermatitis and less growth rate.
- Treatment – Injection, in feed premix, mitiscidal sprays.
- Intestinal torsion – sudden death, diet reducement
- Gastric ulcers – vomiting, deprevade appetite, blood in dung, appetite loss and sudden death. Antibiotics investigate feed, crude fiber, fineness, vitamin selenium.
Pros and Cons
|Pig business is easy to start.||There can be an increase in basal cortisol levels (stress hormone) due to overlay heavy tactile interactions.|
|Not much amount is required in the starting phase.||Overall reduction in the growth rate of the pig.|
|Due to huge domestic demand in India, it is a beneficial business.||Myth – People think pig farming don’t need clean land and atmosphere which can result in less production as well as low-quality pig production.|
|Less equipment is required even in commercial pig farming in Jamaica, USA, Tanzania, India or globally.||Pregnant female pigs need more attention and more care.|
|Pig farming marketing plan is easy in India and globally due to huge domestic and international demand.||Pig feed and water are required in sufficient quantity otherwise pigs can fall sick.|
|Small investors can easily start pig farming.||Need more precautions in cold and hot weather.|
|A farmer can start pig farming beside his or her farmland. By doing this one can reduce land costs.||Need good money for feeding and water management.|
Is pig farming a profitable business?
Pig farming market analysis – Marketing becomes easier when the domestic demand for the product is huge and pig meat has a huge domestic demand in India. As per the records, there are more than 1 billion pigs butchered every year worldwide and 100 million of them in the USA. United States, European Union, Canada are the largest exporter of pigs, in 2008 Canada has exported 22.8 million pigs to 143 countries.
Pig uses in food – All the pigs are being used as food. Some of the examples are sausage, bacon, gammon, ham, head cheese, chitterlings, pork scratchings, feet into trotters, blood pudding or brown pudding.
Pig farming market – Due to huge domestic demand marketing has become an easier process for commercial pig farming in India. While talking about a pig farming license in India has become easier to process nowadays. Moreover, you should also apply for a pig farm loan in India so that you can get the benefits of the pig farming scheme. Earlier only a few people were involved in the pig farming business but now educated people has also started the pig business due to huge pig farming profit margins. Commercial pig farming in USA is also creating pig farming jobs, pig industry is a worldwide industry where people are working on a large scale and searching for pig farming jobs in New Zealand, Australia, Canada, Nottinghamshire, Norfolk, UK, India etc. Hence, it is clear why pig farming is profitable and we can say yes the pig farming business is a profitable business that is attached to the worldwide meat industry.
Pig farming profit in India – Before starting the business you should gain good knowledge and practical pig farming training and later you will find there is a 30% to 40% profit margin in this business. Few pig profit models are
- Breeding the pigs and sale the piglests after the age of 2 months is one of the good option.
- Rearing the piglets till they become 100 kg in weight and then sale them.
- Selling the gilts, pregnant sows, boars.
Pig farming FAQ
Some of the basic questions regarding pig farming practices are given below. Some of these questions are directly picked from comment boxes of various platforms.
What is livestock?
Livestock contains domestic animals Raised in the agriculture Atmosphere to provide labour and produce commodities like meat, flesh, skin, ingredients eggs, milk, leather, wool etc.
What is boar or hog?
Boar or hog is a male pig of breeding age.
What is a sucker in pig species?
It is a pig between birth and weaning.
What is piglet or shoat or shote?
Piglet shoat or shote stands for unweaned young pig or any immature pig.
What is weaner?
Weaner is a young pig recently separated from the sow.
What is a runt?
Runt is an unusually small and weak piglet.
What is barrow?
barrow is a male pig castrated before puberty.
What is stag?
stag is also a male pig. It is an older boar after castration.
What is gilt?
Gilt is a young female pig not yet farrowed.
What is sow?
Sow is a breeding female pig after the first or second litre.
How many pigs do you need to start a pig farm?
You can start with 10-12 pigs in the beginning and later increase the quantity. Start with the formula of 11+1 or 10+1 meaning 10 or 11 female pigs and 1 male pig is required in the beginning.
Pig farming project Report
5 months old pig weight in kg – 117 kg to 127 kg (260 to 280 pounds)
Pig farming cost (12 pigs)
|Pig farm shade cost – Pig shade price||(10-12 pigs) Rs 120,000 to 150,000 accordingly|
|1 piglet price (baby pig)||Rs 2500 – Rs 3000 (33.12 USD to 39.75 USD)|
|12 piglet cost (11 female + 1 male pig)||12 piglet X Rs 3000 = Rs 36,000|
|Feed cost||Rs 2 lakh|
|Biosecurity, water cost and labor cost||Rs 35000|
|Pig farm equipment cost||Rs 15,000|
|Pig medicine cost + Pig vaccination cost||Rs 9,000|
|Marketing and transportation||Rs 10,000|
|Total cost||Rs 460,000 (6092.59 USD)|
Pig farming profit margin (10 pigs)
Average weight of boar = Rs 200 kg (2 quintal)
1 kg pork price in India = Rs 250 to Rs 500 (according to region)
If the weight of 1 pig is 200 kg then
12 pig x 200 kg = 2400 kg
Market price of 1 kg pork varies between Rs 250 to Rs 500
Then 2400 kg X Rs 250 = Rs 6,00,000 (7,945.73 USD)
Net profit = Pig farming profit – Pig farming cost
Net profit = Rs 6 lakh – Rs 4,60,000
Net Profit = Rs 140,000 (1,854.22 USD)
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