12 Pig Farming Project Report | pig farming profit margin

Today, we will help you to understand pig farming costs and profit so that you can make your business plan. Farmers who are interested in commercial animal farming should read the post deeply.

Pig farming introduction

This farming is also known as hog farming. Farming contains the raising and breeding of domestic pigs as livestock. It comes under animal husbandry, pigs are mainly farmed for food purposes such as pork, gammon, bacon and skins.

Types – Some of the different pig farming methods are intensive commercial units, commercial free-range enterprises and extensive farming. Intensive pig farming is a modern system and one of the best farming methods.

Production worldwide – Some of the top pig-producing countries are the European Union (Uk excluded), the United States, Brazil, Russia, Myanmar, Vietnam, Mexico, Canada and the Philippines. In India, Uttara Pradesh is the largest pig producing state.

Pig farming benefits – In the beginning, a question comes to mind how to make money from pig farming then you need to know that pigs are farmed for multipurpose. The majority of pigs are used as human food in the form of meat, pork, bacon and gammon but at the same time, they are also supplied for skin, fats and some other materials for use as clothes, cosmetics, medicinal uses and ingredients for processed foods. Due to pig oil benefits, the oil has a very good demand in the medicinal industry for bones, hair etc.

Pig farming is one of the most popular forms of livestock. Developed countries like the USA, Russia, and Vietnam performs commercial pig farms in which thousand of pigs were kept in climate-controlled buildings. In 1758 domestic pig was called scrofa domestica by Carl Linnaeus.

Pig farming is a low investment and less caring business in comparison to other livestock farming businesses like goat, cow and snail farming etc. Pigs are domesticated hoofed animals. compared to other species they are fast growers and can contribute to a faster economic return to the farmers due to higher productivity, better feed adaptation capacity and early maturity.

Read thisHow to start a snail farm in USA

Moreover, this farming requires a small investment in building and equipment, one can use the corner portion of their agricultural land for such kind of farming by preparing a handmade shade. The reproductive rate is very high in pigs which are approximately 5-15 piglets at a time. Due to immense growth in numbers, one needs sufficient feed for this non-stop growing breed. The pig gestation period falls between 115 to 122 days.

Intensive pig farming

It is the most popular type of farming due to the capability of raising a large number of pigs in a small place and that is in a very cost-efficient manner. Intensive farms are also known as pig factories and it is the preferred method of pig production. In this method, grower pigs are kept indoors in group housing or straw-lined shades. Moreover, pregnant female pigs are housed in gestation crates or pens and give birth in farrowing crates.

Intensive pig farming is a worldwide popular method adopted by most countries some of them are given below:

  • Australia.
  • UK.
  • Ireland.
  • Denmark.
  • USA.

How to start pig farming business in India

To start a pig farming business in the USA, Philippines or India you need to follow the basic steps including land selection, best breed selection, pig feed chart, housing systems etc. All the necessary requirements to start a business are given below:

Select a suitable land

  • Suitable land selection plays a key role which can reduce a big amount straight away.
  • Farmers can select a side portion of their farm which will result in no or cheap land cost.
  • Land should be clean and fresh water sufficient to avoid unwanted diseases in pigs.
  • Land near rural areas can be cheaper and one can get low-cost labour as well.
  • The market should be near the farming place so you can buy the necessary materials and sell your products easily.
  • The availability of veterinary services and good transportation can result in the good health of pigs.

Best pig breeds for small farm

  • First, select the best pig breeds for commercial farming.
  • By selecting the best commercial breeds you can expect higher returns.

Best commercial pig breeds

Yorkshire pig breed characteristics – This is a white-coloured breed (Large white Yorkshire) large in size with a dished face, erect ears and bib cock of medium length. This breed is extremely used for crossbreeding due to some superior results for both rearing and raising pigs. The male pig is known as boar whereas the female is called a sow. The weight of the male pig is between 300 – 400 kg and the female’s weight is between 230 to 320 kilograms.

Hampshire pig breed characteristics – Hampshire breed is medium in size and is mainly used for commercial purposes. This breed is black in colour with a thick heavy body. Male Hampshire pig weight is nearly 320 kg and female weight is around 250 kilograms. This breed is highly used in the meat production business.

Landrace pig characteristics – The landrace pig breed is quite popular in the meat production business and is one of the best commercial pig breeds. This breed contains drooping ears and a long snout with black skin spots on the body. They are long in size and are extremely well in crossbreeding. A mature landrace pig weight for a male is approximately 270 to 360 kg and a sow weight is 200 to 320 kg.

Ghungru pig characteristics – Ghungroo has high maturing power and are used for meat production. This pig species is a low-cost species and are maintained with less effort. This breed has high reproductive power and can easily give birth to 7-14 young piglets weighing 1 kilogram each.

Pig feed ingredients in India

In commercial farming, you should prepare a pig feeding chart by age and this feed chart will help in better results. For feeding equipment, you can purchase some feeding bowls, trays and buckets etc. Before preparing pig feeding formula remember animal growth, health and reproduction rate depend on the quality and the nutritious food supply.

Some of the economic ingredients are considered grains, maize, sorghum, rice, wheat and some other millets. Feed your pigs with green legumes and fresh water.

Fish meal, cakes, vitamins, meat meals and minerals. Apart from this 11 milligrams per 1 kg of antibiotic supplement can be added. It is advised to feed your pigs with age, weight and sufficient nutrients.

Pig housing structures

Pig housing requirements should be fulfilled and comfortable housing can result in good production meaning successful pig farming. Don’t mix other species provide proper ventilation, heat lamp use is necessary for winters to keep them warm. The use of a straw to prepare beds is quite useful to keep the environment warm. Provide proper spacing accordingly and don’t think that pigs are unhygienic so do take care of hygiene it will result in less disease and better health automatically higher animal production. Due to the dry environment, they can lose weight of around 5 kg so do take care of them in summer in a more vigilant manner.

Pig housing according to category

Pig category Pig housing requirements (per pig)
BoarFloor area per pig (m²) = 6.25-7.6.
(Boar or hog – male pig of breeding age)Open yard area (m²) = 8.8-12.0.
Water required = 42-46 litres.
FarrowingWater required = 42-46 litres.
(Farrowing – giving birth)Open yard area (m²) = 8.8-12.
Water required = 17-23 litres.
WeanerWater required = 17-23 litres.
(A young pig recently separated from the sow)Open yard area (m²) = 8.8-12.0.
Water required = 3-4 liters.
DrysowFloor area (m²) = 1.7-2.8.
Open yard area (m²) = 1.5-1.8.
Water required = 3-4 litres.

Breeding pigs for profit

Select 8 to 9 months old male and female pigs for the crossbreeding process. After 8 to 9 months both pigs weigh between 100 to 200 kg. The female pig heat period lasts 3 days and the first day is best for the breeding of the gilt and the second is best for 2 to 10 days of the sow. Sow breeds again after 2-10 days of weaning moreover, the period of gestation (pregnancy) is approximately 110 days and 7 to 13 piglets can be produced at a time.

Pig care and management

Pig caring is necessary to keep them away from disease for good pork production. Don’t feed all the pigs for breeding purposes instead, you should divide them and utilize some for breeding and some for another purpose. To prevent swine flu they should be vaccinated at the age of 2 to 4 weeks. Caring is necessary for all piglets, gestated swine and breeding boar, however, extra care is needed for sows during the lactation period and also provide proper nutritious food. Maintain the calmness of the farm and avoid unnecessary visitors.

Pig diseases and treatment

  • Common disease – Swine brucellosis, piglet scours, piglet anaemia and leptospirosis. These diseases can be controlled by vaccination and antibiotics.
  • Porcine health management – Itching, rubbing, scratching, dermatitis and less growth rate.
  • Treatment – Injection, in-feed premix, miticide sprays.
  • Intestinal torsion – Sudden death, diet reduction.
  • Gastric ulcers – Vomiting, depraved appetite, blood in dung, appetite loss and sudden death. Antibiotics investigate feed, crude fibre, fineness and vitamin selenium.

Pros and Cons

Pig business is easy to start.There can be an increase in basal cortisol levels (stress hormone) due to overlay heavy tactile interactions.
Not much amount is required in the starting phase.Overall reduction in the growth rate of the pig.
Due to huge domestic demand in India, it is a beneficial business.Myth – People think pig farming don’t need clean land and atmosphere which can result in less production as well as low-quality production.
Less equipment is required even in USA, Spain, Portugal, Tanzania, India or globally.Gestating pigs need more attention and more care.
Marketing plan is easy in India and globally due to huge domestic and international demand.Feed and water are required in sufficient quantity otherwise pigs can fall sick.
Small investors can easily start this farming.Need more precautions in cold and hot weather.
A farmer can start pig farming beside his or her farmland. By doing this one can reduce land costs.Need good money for feeding and water management.

Is pig farming a profitable business?

Marketing becomes easier when the domestic demand for the product is huge and pig meat has a huge domestic demand in USA, Canada and Phillipines . As per the records, there are more than 1 billion pigs butchered every year worldwide and 100 million of them in the USA. United States, European Union, Canada are the largest exporter of pigs, in 2008 Canada has exported 22.8 million pigs to 143 countries.

Most of the pigs are being used as food. Some of the examples are sausage, bacon, gammon, ham, head cheese, chitterlings, pork scratchings, feet into trotters, blood pudding or brown pudding.

Due to huge domestic demand marketing has become an easier process for commercial pig farming in India. Its license in India has become easier to process nowadays. Moreover, you should also apply for a pig farm loan in India so that you can get the benefits of the scheme. Earlier only a few people were involved but now educated people have also started the pig business due to huge profit margins.

Commercial pig farming in USA is also creating jobs. This is a worldwide industry where people are working on a large scale and searching for pig farming jobs in New Zealand, Australia, Canada, Nottinghamshire, Norfolk, UK, India etc. Yes the it is a profitable business that is attached to the worldwide meat industry.

Before starting the business you should gain good knowledge and practical training and later you will find there is a 30% to 40% profit margin in this business.

  • Breeding the pigs and selling the piglets after the age of 2 months is one of the good option.
  • Rearing the piglets till they become 100 kg in weight and then sale them.
  • Selling the gilts, pregnant sows and boars.


What is livestock?

Livestock contains domestic animals raised in the agriculture atmosphere to provide labour and produce commodities like meat, flesh, skin, ingredients eggs, milk, leather, wool etc.

What is boar or hog?

Boar or hog is a male pig of breeding age.

What is a sucker in pig species?

It is a pig between birth and weaning.

What is piglet or shoat or shote?

Piglet shoat or shote stands for unweaned young pig or any immature pig.

What is weaner?

Weaner is a young pig recently separated from the sow.

What is a runt?

Runt is an unusually small and weak piglet.

What is barrow?

barrow is a male pig castrated before puberty.

What is stag?

stag is also a male pig. It is an older boar after castration.

What is gilt?

Gilt is a young female pig not yet farrowed.

What is sow?

Sow is a breeding female pig after the first or second litre.

How many pigs do you need to start a pig farm?

You can start with 10-12 pigs in the beginning and later increase the quantity. Start with the formula of 11+1 or 10+1 meaning 10 or 11 female pigs and 1 male pig is required in the beginning.

Pig farming project Report

5 month old pig weight in kg – 117 kg to 127 kg (260 to 280 pounds)

Pig farming cost (12 pigs)

Pig farm shade cost –(10-12 pigs) Rs 120,000 to 150,000 accordingly
1 piglet price (baby pig)Rs 2500 – Rs 3000 (33.12 USD to 39.75 USD)
12 piglet cost (11 female + 1 male pig)12 piglet X Rs 3000 = Rs 36,000
Feed costRs 2 lakh
Biosecurity, water cost and labor costRs 35000
Pig farm equipment costRs 15,000
Pig medicine cost + Pig vaccination costRs 9,000
Marketing and TransportationRs 10,000
MiscellaneousRs 5000
Total costRs 460,000 (6092.59 USD)
Pig farm cost is given in the table.

Pig farming profit margin (10 pigs)

The average weight of boar = 200 kg (2 quintals).
1 kg pork price in India = Rs 250 to Rs 500 (according to region).
If the weight of 1 pig is 200 kg.
Then 12 pigs x 200 kg = 2400 kg.
The market price of 1 kg of pork varies between Rs 250 to Rs 500.
Then 2400 kg X Rs 250 = Rs 6,00,000 (7,945.73 USD).
Net profit = Pig farming profit – Pig farming cost.
Net profit = Rs 6 lakh – Rs 4,60,000.
Net Profit = Rs 140,000 (1,854.22 USD).

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