Hop shoots grow throughout the year. It is a money-making cultivation in this farming liquid extract price is Rs 1800 per kg.
Hop shoots plants introduction
Scientifically they are called “Humulus lupulus”. Generally, hops are green in colour with cone-shaped flowers of the female plant. They are members of the Cannabaceae family, “cannabaceae” is also known as the hemp family; it is a small flowering plant family.
Hops are agricultural produce and are primarily used as a flavouring, bittering and stability agent in beer. Apart from bitterness they also provide floral, fruity, and citrus flavours and aromas to the beer. These plants are classified into two categories, male and female but only female plants are used for commercial hop farming.
They are vigorous climbing perennial plants, “Perennial Plants” are such plants that live over 2 years. These plants are well known for their use in the brewing industry. They are also used for different purposes in various industries including medicine, beverages and herbal medicines. They are also a good and concentrated source of essential oil, while commercial cultivation the plant is usually trained to grow strings in a field, yard or garden.
First-time hops were used in beer in the 9th century. The plant was first cultivated in 736 in Germany, earlier known as Hallertau. Germany started using hops in brewing in 1079. In 1400 first time Holland delivered hopped beer to Britain. France, Holland and Germany imported hops in England.
Production by country
Hop production is mostly centralised in moist temperature conditions, 48 parallel north is the region where most production takes place. The good thing is that hop shoots prefer the same soil as potatoes and India holds 2nd position in the potato-growing countries in the world followed by Ukraine and Russia. Whereas, the leading potato-growing states in USA are commercial hop-producing states as well. The United States is in the top 5 biggest hop-producing countries and holds the first position in the world.
Top 10 hop producing countries
|Countries||Output in tonnes|
|1.||United States of America||47,541|
Hop shoot farming in India
Some of the varieties are Aramis, Callista Chinook, Opal and Polaris. Some varieties along with their profile are given below in the chart.
|Bravo||Apart from the bittering taste, bravo hop contributes fruity and floral tones that work great in IPAs, Pale Ales and Red Ales. It has pleasant aromatic alpha acid 14 to 17 %. It’s a clean bittering.|
|Calypso||It is a good dual-purpose and apart from its complex aroma alpha acid chops use in bittering additions. Calypso is a dry hopping variety with great late addition and bittering potential.|
|Lemon drop||As the name suggests lemon shoot contains a unique lemon citrus with a pleasant aroma. The lemon drop variety is perfect for seasonable beers due to its bright citrus and subtle herbaceous notes. It is refined for quality lagers.|
|Zeus||Zeus is a high-yielding hop. It is an American hybrid variety with a pleasant Aroma. ‘Pungent hoppy kick’ and ‘spicy herbal’ flavour along with aroma is the speciality of this American hybrid.|
|Bitter gold||Bitter gold hops were released in 1999 and it is a high alpha variety that contains an excellent aroma. While bittering the bitter gold variety offers a limited aroma whereas delivers diverse stone and typical fruit flavour in a later addition. The bitter gold hops lineage includes brewer’s gold, bullion, comet and fuggle. |
Hopyard must have direct sunlight, an easy water supply and sufficient spacing.
Sufficient spacing is required for the vertical growth of the plants.
It is a climbing plant and needs a strong support system to grow.
You should install tall polls and strong twines to support the climbing vines.
Avoid the land nearby electric wires due to the sprawling vines of the plant.
These plants need a good amount of water hence, drip irrigation is advised for hop cultivation. Drip irrigation is well known for water-saving irrigation due to its drop-to-drop supply to each and every plant. Established hop plants need 1.5 inches of water per week.
Hop shoots need moisture consistently throughout the growing season. Make sure plants do not get overwet, overwetting may result in the loss of nutrients in the groundwater.
To minimise the wet foliage you should use drip irrigation or water by your hands at the base of the plant. It will also result in the good health of the plants.
Hop shoots plant needed soil pH between 6 to 7
Generally, hop plant propagation takes place through runners that arise from the crown.
- Cut the runners into some pieces 6 to 8 inches long.
- Plant these cutting instantly.
- Or store these cuttings in a cold area.
- Hop growers often create a nursery to plant cuttings for a season.
- Later 1-year cutting sets are transplanted from the nursery to the main field in the spring.
Disease and insects
Diseases – Sooty mould, root rots, verticillium wilt and viral disease.
Insects – Some of the insects are aphids, spider mites, cutworms, omnivorous leaf-tier larvae
Planting rhizomes and training to climb
Hops are perennial plants well known for brewing. While commercial cultivation female plants are preferred over males because female plants are able to produce flower cones. This conse consists of luplin, aromatic oils and resins that provide the characteristic flavour to beer.
- Generally, hops are easily available from the month of March to May.
- One can purchase rhizomes online or via brewing supply stores.
- It is good to plant after the final frost.
- Plants should be planted in rows.
- They need more care in late June and early July.
- The early summer period is considered to train the plants.
- Hop shoots are ready to train once they reach 1 to 2 feet of height.
- Strong baling twine is good to create a trellis.
- Now stretch the twine over the row, stretch it at least 10 to 14 feet.
- A piece of twine is run down to each plant with a stake in the ground at the base of the plant.
- Now choose the strongest seedling to clinch up the trellis.
- Selecting 2 bines produces more vegetative growth and a better balance of plant and leaves.
- 80 % cones to 20% leaves is an ideal portion.
- Continue pruning throughout the season.
- 2 to 3 feet of foliage can be removed when vines reach the trellis. Also, note whether they have produced the side branches.
Hop harvesting process
Generally, these plants are grown til mid-July. However, the harvesting takes place according to the region and you might get a chance to harvest them from mid-August to September as well. They are harvested multiple times. Cones at the top of the plant mature faster in comparison to the lower cones due to the sufficient and direct sunlight on the top cones.
Cones are harvested when they become drier and a bit off-colour, don’t harvest the green cones. Smart farmers in Australia use to recognise ripe cones by their sticky smell.
After the harvesting process, it is important to dry and store cones so they don’t get musty. While drying them make sure the temperature should be below 135 degrees fahrenheit.
Usually, harvesting begins at the end of August to throughout September. Once the hops are dried they cool for up to 24 hours.
Hop price per kg
Liquid extract – Rs 1800 per kg.
Flower extract – Rs 2200 per kg.
Hop farming project report
Cost per acre
- Planting material cost = Rs 50,000.
- Labour cost = Rs 10,000.
- Irrigation cost = Rs 10,000.
- Land preparation cost = Rs 8000.
- Fertiliser cost = Rs 8000.
- Plant security cost = Rs 6000.
- Miscellaneous cost = Rs 1000.
- Total cost = Rs 93,000.
Hop shoots yield per acre
Hop shoots yield per acre depends on various varieties. An average yield is between 800 to 1500 pounds per acre that are Rs 80K to Rs 1,51,296.32. However, revenue profit per acre is much more but depending on the market price. Moreover, the hop international market price is much bigger.
Is hop farming profitable?
The United States is the top producer of hops followed by Germany, India is not even in the top 10 hop-producing countries in the world. This may be seen as a drawback of India but depends on the view and actually, it is a major opportunity for Indian farmers to start hop cultivation due to very low competition in India, commercial hop cultivation will be a much better option.
Health benefits of hops
- Hop is good for skin, it keeps skin younger.
- Hop skin benefits – treat skin inflammation.
- Hop is used to relax muscles.
- Good for the treatment of different ulcers.
- Improve digestive system.
- Used in teeth treatment.
- Caryophyllene – 88 gram.
- Farnesene – 54 grams.
- Myrcene – 12 grams.
- Humulene – 48 grams.
- Vitamin C – 91 grams.
- Vitamin B6 – 78 gram.
- Vitamin E – 77 grams.
- Xanthohumol – 33 grams.
Apart from the water, cellulose and various proteins, the chemical composition of hops consists of some important compounds that are responsible for imparting character to the beer.
Alpha acids, Beta acids, Essential oils and Flavonoids.
Can we grow hops in Uttarakhand?
Yes, one can definitely grow hops in Uttarakhand. The weather required for growing hop shoots is similar in Uttarakhand, moreover, hops prefer the soil liked by potatoes and Uttarakhand is one of the leading potato-growing states in India and holds a position in the top 5 potato-growing states.
How long do hops take to grow?
Hops need at least 120 days to grow.
How tall do hops grow the first year?
Nearly 8 to 10 feet.
What is the planting season of this crop?
Hops should not be planted in winter, spring is chosen to avoid frost.
How often do you water hops?
Hops cannot tolerate standing water. Established hop plants require 1.5 inches of water per week.
How tall should a hops trellis be?
It will be good to have a 15 to 20 feet long hops trellis.
How many hop plants per acre?
1200 to 1400 hop plants per acre are sufficient for better hop yield per acre.
Can I grow hops in my garden?
Yes, you can easily grow the hop shoots in your garden but make sure not to plant this precious cannabaceae family plant in the winter. Moreover, you need well-composed soil rich in nutrients with a good drainage system. Hops spread quickly and may take over the garden so regular pruning is advised.