Cotton farming profit per acre India | cotton cultivation project report

Cotton is also known as white gold and today we will drag your attention towards cotton farming profit in India and by our project report on cotton farming you will clearly understand why some farmers are interested and why some are not interested in the cultivation of cotton farming.

Information about cotton farming

  • Cotton demands for proper amount of fertilizer at right time. 
  • For the control of weeds it is necessary that weeding should be done 2-3 times. 
  • Water management also has to be taken care of in the cotton crop.
  • Moisture should neither be too less nor too much, so make arrangements for irrigation of the crop keeping in view the rainfall.
  • Do the last irrigation of the cotton crop when one third of the tufts are opened. After this irrigation is not required. 
  • Cotton crop gets ready according to the different varieties in between october to February months. 
  • For more information on cotton you can approach the central institute of cotton research (CICR). 

Project report on cotton cultivation

Cotton farming cost per acre

10 kg cotton seeds in one acre 

Planting cost - Rs 17,000

Labor cost - Rs 15,000

Land preparation cost - Rs 10,000

Fertilizer and manure cost - Rs 20,000

Pesticides and insecticides cost - Rs 5000

Irrigation charges - Rs 25,000

Fencing cost - Rs 20,000

Miscellaneous cost - Rs 5000

Total cost = Rs 117,000

Cotton farming profit per acre

Cotton yield from 1 acre 

An average 12-15 quintal cotton is produced per acre 

If 12 quintal 

12 quintal = 1200 kg 

1 kg cotton price in India 2021 varies between Rs 140 to 160

Rs 150 x 1200 kg cotton = Rs 180,000

Net profit = cotton yield per acre - cotton farming cost per acre - 

Net profit = Rs 180,000 - 117000

Net profit = Rs 63,000

Note - Price may differ according to the market, verities and location. 

How to start cotton farming

To start cotton farming you just need to collect basic information like temperature, soil, water etc required for cotton farming. All the information about cotton farming is given below.

Soil requirement for cotton

  • Soil for cotton crop - Sandy loam soil is the preferable soil for cotton cultivation whereas only sandy soil or only clay soil is not suitable for cotton cultivation due to seed germination problem. 
  • Some other suitable soil for cotton cultivation are - red soil, light red soil, ashy soil and brackish soil. 
  • Not suitable soil for growing cotton are - alkaline soil, saline soil, soil with a bad drainage system. 
  • For proper root growth of cotton the depth of the soil should be near one meter. Deep fertile sandy loam soil with good drainage capability is preferred in the cotton cultivation. 

Soil ph for cotton

Soil ph for cotton - 5.5 pH to 7.5 pH. 

Cotton planting season

Cotton planting time is as important as land preparation for cotton plants. If planting is not done at the right time then it will result in low yielding.

  • South India - Cotton seed sowing time is April month.
  • North India - Cotton seeds are sown in the month of May.

Planting depth of cotton

Sowing depth of cotton - 0.25 cm 

Cotton plant spacing

Cotton planting spacing - Plant spacing for cotton crop should be between 30 x 30 cm for cotton plant to plant distance. 

Cotton row spacing

Row to row distance in cotton in cm is 60 cm. 

Plant spacing in cotton hybrid

  • Cotton plant spacing for hybrid plants is 60 cm 
  • Row spacing in cotton hybrid is also 60 cm

Cotton plant density

  • Cotton plant in irrigated land - 70,000 plants per hectare. 
  • Cotton plant density in dry land - 30,000 plants.   
cotton farm in india

Temperature and rainfall required for cotton

Temperature required for cotton cultivation

  • Cotton plant temperature - The minimum temperature required for growing cotton in India is around 18° C.
  • Optimum temperature for cotton growth is above 25° C. 
  • However, temperature below 20° C results in slow flower cotton growth.
  • Cold climate for cotton cultivation is not suitable, sowing cotton seeds in cold weather is not recommended. This may affect fiber quality and result in poor cotton yield. 

Cotton rainfall requirements

Rainfall cotton crop - The minimum annual rainfall for cotton cultivation should be around 50 cm with a good number of heavy showers during the boll formation. 

How long cotton takes to grow

Generally, cotton takes 200 to 230 days to grow. 

How to propagate cotton plant

Propagation method of cotton - Seeds are used for propagation of cotton plants. Before sowing cotton seeds you have to perform a  pre-sowing process that consists of cotton seed treatment fungicides, insecticides. 

  • Put seeds in a bucket along with sulphuric acid. Sulphuric acid should be @ 100 ml per kg of seeds. 
  • Shek them well with the help of a wooden stick for at least 2 minutes this will change the cotton seed color into coffee color. 
  • Drain the acid water by mixing plain water then wash the seeds completely. Water dilution is necessary because it will thin the acid water which will help you wash the seeds.
  • Next step is to remove all the floating and deceased cotton seeds. 
  • After removing diseased seeds, dry out all the healthy and delinted cotton seeds in the shade. 
  • These delinted cotton seeds are then treated with suitable fungicides i.e biocontrol agents and bio fertilizers. 
  • Seeds need to be soaked in 1% pungam leaf extract for approximately 8 hours. These cotton seeds are then dried to increase the feck and cotton seed germination ability. 

Land preparation for cotton production 

Before planting the cotton seeds or seedlings ploughing and harrowing is necessary in the cotton field, in India or anywhere. As cotton plants are a deep rooted crop, therefore it needed a fine soil base for proper germination. 

During the ploughing process it is necessary to remove all the residues of previous plants or crops. Residue removal process should be repeated during the weed removal process for effective field preparation for deep rooted crops like cotton. 

You should form ridges around the farm; it will help in proper drainage and conservation of water which will result in better cotton yield per acre.

Desi cotton varieties or Indian cotton varieties.

  • Lohita
  • R.G 8 cotton
  • C.A.D 4 cotton

American cotton varieties 

  • H.H 6 vikas 
  • H 777 
  • F 846
  • R.S 810
  • R.S 2013

cotton hybrid variety

Some of the hybrid cotton varieties in India are given below

  • H.8 (130-135 days)
  • J.K.H 3 (130-135 days)

Both these cotton hybrid plant take about 130 to 135 days to mature. Apart from these there are lots of cotton hybrid seeds and varieties that you can choose according to your region and climate conditions.

Plant the cotton on the bunds of the field for easy germination of seeds and keep in mind that water does not accumulate on the meadows during irrigation. 

Cotton production per hectare

  • 10 to 15 quintal indigenous cotton varieties. 
  • 13 to 18 quintal hybrid cotton per hectare. 

Cotton disease management

Cotton flower and tufts falling problem

Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) 

Mix 2 gram NAA into 10 litre water and 1 acre requires 200 litre water. Spray this mixture two times one while flower blooming and next spray during cotton tufts formation. 

5 ml neem oil + 1 litre water = Spray for insect and moths 

Yellow sticky cards for insects - You should use yellow sticky traps for flying plant insect. This will definitely help in cotton farming, use this yellow sticky trap for insects in the beginning of the cotton farming to lower the risk of moths and insects. Use 4-5 yellow boards in 1 acre cotton farm.

Redness in the leaves - Foliar spray of magnesium zinc can be applied after 50-80 days of plantation. 

Cotton fertilizer management

Nitrogen fertilizer is essential for the soil where the cotton crop is going to be installed. 

Nitrogen required in one hectare land

  • irrigation condition - 200 kg nitrogen
  • Wet condition - 140 kg

Phosphorus and potassium required in one hectare land

  • 100 kg Phosphorus and potassium required in irrigation conditions.
  • 12.5 kg of micronutrients mixture 

Zinc added in 1 hectare

50 kg per hectare ZnSO4 as a basal dose 

Irrigation requirement of cotton 

  • Cotton plants can grow in less waterfall regions as well however, good rainfall can result in high yield of cotton. 
  • Annual rainfall required for cotton cultivation is around 1200 - 1500 mm Water requirement low - during 60 - 70 days
  • Water requirement high - during flowering and boll development. 

Irrigation cycles according to the soil

  • Sandy loam soil -  3 to 4 irrigation cycles.
  • Red sandy loam soil -  4 to 13 light irrigation cycles

Cotton farming FAQ

How cotton is propagated?

Cotton is propagated by seeds and seedlings.

What is the planting depth of cotton?

Root zone depth of cotton should be 0.25 cm. 

How many seeds can be sowed in one hole?

2-3 seeds sowing in one hole is good for better cotton yield per acre in karnataka, Andhra or whole India. 

How long does yugank cotton take to grow?

Yugank cotton grows in 100 days.

Who developed the yugank cotton variety?

The Yugank cotton variety was developed by the central cotton research institute Nagpur. 

How many cotton seeds per acre are required?

7 to 10 kg American variety cotton seeds and 6-7 kg indigenous cotton seeds per acre are required. 

How many cotton seed per hectare are required?

  • 12 to 15 kg desi cotton seeds per hectare 
  • 15 to 20 kg American cotton seeds per hectare
  • Hybrid cotton seeds - 3 to 4 kg are enough. 

How many cotton plants per acre?

It depends on spacing however, you can plant nearly 70,000 cotton plants per acre. 

How much cotton per acre?

12 to 15 quintal American cotton can be produced per acre.

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