Elaichi is known as cardamom in English language and it is one of the most expensive spices and has great demand due to the involvement in almost every Indian or western kitchen.
Quick description - 1 acre = 500 plants, profit Rs 964500. Cardamom growing trick shared.
Cardamom is a type of spices that is used in cooking food items. Due to health benefits it is also recommended by doctors to eat 3 to 5 cardamom on daily basis for better respiratory system.
Cost of cardamom per kg
It is very expensive and one kg cardamom price is around Rs 1063
Cost 1 acre
- 1 sapling cost = Rs 10 to Rs 150 as per the variety.
- Lets take Rs 25 per plant and install 500 plants in 1 acre.
- Planting material cost = Rs 25 x 500 plants = Rs 12,500.
- Land preparation = Rs 25,000.
- Irrigation = Rs 8,000.
- Electricity cost = Rs 8000.
- Manure and Fertilizer cost = Rs 20,000.
- Labor charges = Rs 15,000 to Rs 50,000 (according to the labor strength).
- Miscellaneous cost = Rs 10,000.
- Total investment = Rs 12,500 + Rs 25,000 + Rs 8,000 + Rs 8,000 + Rs 20,000 + Rs 15,000 + Rs 10,000 = Rs 98,500.
Cardamom farming profit per acre
Average price of 1 kg cardamom is Rs 1063 to Rs 2000 depends on variety and quality.
Lets take the average price Rs 1063 and calculate for 4th years yielding.
- 1st year production – Nil.
- 2nd year cardamom yield per acre = 50 kg.
- Then 50 kg X Rs 1063 = Rs 53,150.
- 3rd year production = Half kg per plant. So, 500 plants x .5kg = 250 kg yield per acre
- Cardamom plant will produce 2 kg per plant by the 4th year.
- Cardamom yield per acre (4th year) = 2 kg x 500 plants = 1000 kg eliche.
- Profit = Rs 1063 x 1000 kg = Rs 1063000.
- Investment =Rs 98,500.
- Net Profit = Investment - Income.
- Net Profit = Rs Rs 98,500 – Rs 1063000 = Rs 964500.
This is the profit for cardamom cultivation for 4th year.
Note – It is an estimated calculation and actual profit may differ according to region and market price, profit may increase or decrease yearly according to the situation. Moreover, I have calculated the above figure with an average price of cardamom that is Rs 1000 but in few places price is more than Rs 2000 as well. So, you should adjust the figure accordingly.
How to start cardamom cultivation
Follow the practices given below:
Types of cardamom
- White - True or green cardamom it is exported from India to Malaysia. This type is also known as white cardamom because after bleaching it turns bit whitish.
- Black - It is larger in size and called black cardamom it is often used in cooking items in 5 star hotels as well as in ordinary homes. This black type is also known as large, longer, greater, brown or Nepal cardamom it belongs to amomum subulatum species. It is mostly cultivated in Sikkim, some parts of Darjeeling district in West Bengal, India along with eastern Nepal and southern Bhutan.
- Commercial verities – The high yielding varieties are ICRI-1, ICRI-2, PV-1, and PV-2, njallani cardamom yield some more are Malabar, Mysore and Vazhukka.
Temperature required 10° to 35° C.
Best season to grow
Elaichi crop needs much water hence July and rainy season is preferred for sowing seeds or planting seedlings.
It is an exotic plant that needs partial sunlight with humidity in the environment and moisture in the mud.
Cardamom tree demands more water during summer and flowering. It needs annual rainfall ranges from 1500 to 4000 mm. It need water throughout the year except in rainy season.
Due to the need of regular water supply throughout the year it is recommended to arrange a strong irrigation system, before starting its cultivation. For efficient irrigation one can choose sprinkler and drip irrigation technology that includes proper drainage system and it also saves plenty of water.
It needs rich soil consist of loamy, black rich, clay loams and smooth soil. Don’t use sandy soil because sandy soil is not good for cardamom growth however laterite soil is suitable and the soil that contains high humidity are great for its growth.
First remove unwanted plants and weed using weed removal tool like grub hook, scud then ploughing should be done thoroughly and land leveling is required to be done properly, don’t forget to prepare some terrace across the slope. Now, make some pits with the dimensions of 60 x 60 x 35 cm to 90 x 90 x 45 cm. These pits need to be filled by rich soil and organic manure in the ratio of 1 : 3 i.e soil is one third and the remaining is organic manure.
Cardamom plants per acre
With the spacing of 7 x 7 around 1,000 plants can be planted in one acre land.
Fertilizer requiredCardamom crop demands good amount of fertilizer so provide this crop good fertilizer once in a month and if you have planted it in your pot then fertilize it after 15 days. You can use organic fertilizer such as cow dung and vermicomposting is also good for cardamom crop cultivation. While talking about NPK the ratio should be 3 : 2 : 4 per bed now strictly divide it in three equal doses of an interval of 45 days each.
However, I have given this equation but I still ask you to prefer organic manure especially when the crop takes more than a year to grow, because organic performs slowly but steadily. You can add organic manure in the form of bone meal, neem cake, vermicompost at the ratio of 0.6+0.4+0.7 tons per acre.
Provide an atmosphere that is full of sunlight, humidity and moisture in the mud including black and smooth mud for better results. You should provide good amount of water on regular basis. For better and healthy results use organic fertilizer and vermcomposting technique.
Production per acre
By the 4th year 1 plant is capable of producing 2 kg fruits. By planting 500 plants one can achieve (500 plants x 2 kg=1000 kg) 1000 kg of cardamom yield per acre.
How long cardamom takes to grow
It grows in first year and starts yielding after 2-3 years. For commercial purpose it starts giving cardamom after 3 years.
Lifespan of cardamom plant - 10 to 15 years.
The harvesting of elachi is bit hard working therefore it takes almost a month to complete one harvesting cycle. The ripe capsule type fruit is dried in a sunlight area it is also dried with the help of a drier. Later the dried elachi is rubbed with hands, mat or wire mesh it is rubbed to remove dust particles from outer shell. Then they are stored in dark black polythene this is done to maintain there green color for long time.
Elaichi production in india
India is second largest producer of the cardamom in the world. India is the largest and leading producer of cardamom oil. The oil called oleoresins is exported by India to European countries. It is popular and well known as queen of the spices.
This species belongs to zingiberaceae family and also known as cardamun. It needs more water and partial sunlight with humid atmosphere. Its height is above 5 feet with long leaves. Cardamom is a flavoring agent that is used in beverages, liquors and medicines. Seeds are used in making oil, pods and perfumes.
How to grow cardamom at home
You can plant elaichi plant in a small pot or container as well but if you have some space available at your garden that will be more beneficial for the cardamom plant. Choose a place that is near to any type of water or a land that contains moisture every time it may be near your hand pump region or near some other water source. Cardamom requires a lot of water and sunlight so never put your plant inside your house. It is very easy to plant it in your garden you just need to dig the land by 3 inches and sow your plant over there you can also use a digging tool to dig the land.
How to grow cardamom from seed at home
Paper towel method to grow cardamom - First you can collect some seeds by compressing existing cardamom at your home or you can buy some seeds from the market. Then put these seeds in a small bowl and add an inch of turmeric to 30-40 seeds then fill the bowl with water and leave it for 10 days.
Turmeric is helpful in rooting and sprouting and after 10 days take a paper towel then fold it once and spread these seeds with distance with each other in a paper towel (tissue paper) and add 3-4 table spoon water on them then fold the paper towel again.
Note, if towel is more wet then press it and remove extra water from the paper towel then put this paper towel in a zipped or tight polythen for 20 to 25 days in a dark place. After 25 days you can sow these sprouted seeds, for that you need a small pot or any plastic bowl then fill it with rich soil consist of sandy, loamy and clay soil, black and smooth soil is best for cardamom.
Then take a match box stick and make some tiny holes on the mud and place the cardamom sprouts on them then put a lid that contains few holes and now you can put this bowl in partial sunlight don’t put it in direct sunlight because sprouts are not strong enough to absorb direct sunlight. After some time when they grew at least 3 to 4 inches long then you can transplant them.
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