Today, we will draw your attention towards the most used spice in Indian kitchens. This post contains four sections in first section you can see information about turmeric plant whereas second section will provide you turmeric farming project report in which turmeric farming cost and turmeric yield per acre is mentioned. Third section is decorated with turmeric farming practices and techniques. In 5th section you will find turmeric health benefits. Last but not the least 6th section is consist of frequently asked questions related turmeric farming and if you have any query or suggestion just ask or suggest in below comment box.
Turmeric plant information
Turmeric crops get ready for harvesting within 7 to 9 months after sowing. Turmeric is a flowering plant technically it is known as Angiospermae which means hidden seeds. Curcuma is a genus of turmeric and turmeric belongs to the “Ginger” family which is also known as “Zingiberaceae''. It is a ‘perennial’ plant, perennial means a plant that lives more than two years. Turmeric is a rhizome and rhizome sends out roots and shoots from its nodes. Rhizomes grow horizontally and are also called rootstalks of creeping rootstalks.
Turmeric is native to the Indian subcontinent and southeast Asia it is also known as Indian saffron. Turmeric falls in the category of herbaceous plant, herbaceous plants are basically vascular plants that don't have any woody stems above the ground. Almost every annuals, biennials plant and many perennial plants fall in the category of herbaceous plant. Turmeric is a vascular plant that has no persistent woody stems above ground. Turmeric cultivation temperature is considered between 20 C to 30 °C (68 - 86 °F).
Rhizomes can be used fresh however, they are boiled in water and dried after the drying process. Rhizomes are converted into dark yellow powder that are commonly used as a colouring and flavouring agent. Turmeric is specially used in Indian kitchens and traditions. They are often used in wedding ceremony programs and are involved almost in every Indian dish. While talking about the taste turmeric powder has a flavour like warm, bitter, black pepper and it consists of earthy, mustard aroma.
Turmeric is a major part of Ayurveda but according to Wikipedia it was first used as dye and later involved in folk medicines. It is also used as Siddha medicine, one of the oldest systems of medicine in India.
Turmeric reaches upto 1 meter tall (3ft 3inc) and it contains cylinder aromatic rhizomes. Turmeric plants have big and wide leaves. The turmeric contains wide leaf blades of 38 to 48 cm (width) and 76 to 115 cm long, leaves are narrow at the tip.
Turmeric farming project report
Turmeric cultivation cost per acre
1000 turmeric seeds can planted in 1 acre
1000 seeds x Rs 75 = Rs 75000
Cost of turmeric seed - 75,000
Manure and fertilizer cost - Rs 7000
Irrigation cost - Rs 14,000
Plant protection charges - Rs 4000
Boiling cost - Rs 2000
Drying cost - Rs 400
Polishing cost - Rs 800
Labour cost - Rs 10,000
Total cost = Rs 113200
Turmeric farming profit per acre
Now lets calculate turmeric cultivation profit per acre
Price of 1 kg turmeric varies between Rs 75 to Rs 150 accordingly and sometime above
turmeric seeds for planting in one acre - 1000 kg
After 7 to 8 months you will see these seeds will multiply twice or thrice.
Therefore turmeric yield per acre in quintal after 7-8 months will be nearly 18 to 24 quintals
Let's take 18 quintals as fresh turmeric yield per acre
If price is Rs 75 then
Rs 75 x 18 quintals turmeric
1 quintal = 1000 kg therefore 18 quintal = 1800 kg
Rs 100 x 1800 kg = 180,000
Net profit = turmeric yield per acre profit - turmeric cost per acre
Net profit = 180,000 - 113200 = 66800
Net Profit = 66,800
Note - This is the assumption of turmeric farming project report the price may vary according to market, place, season and time.
How to grow turmeric plant in India
You should follow the basic steps to start turmeric cultivation in India or to grow turmeric at home. For growing turmeric commercially you should be aware of the following details including best quality of turmeric, temperature for turmeric plant, soil for growing turmeric, water test for turmeric, best fertilizer for turmeric plants, turmeric care etc and after reading all these information in below paragraphs you will easily find the answer how to cultivate turmeric plant.
Let's begin - section 3
Turmeric varieties in India
Turmeric hybrid varieties for commercial cultivation are given below please have a look
What is the temperature for turmeric
20 C to 30 °C (68 - 86 °F) is the correct temperature for turmeric crops.
Water requirement for turmeric crop
Turmeric crop needs 15 to 20 irrigations in medium heavy soil and 35 to 40 irrigations in light soils. Turmeric requires assured water supply throughout the year so, it is mainly grown in the good rainfall region. Tamilnadu, Coimbatore, Salem, Namakkal, Erode, Dharmapuri fall under high rainfall areas and annual rainfall for these regions are 718 mm to 875 mm.
What soil is best for turmeric
While talking about the soil requirement of turmeric cultivation one should choose loamy soil and sandy loam soil, these are the most suitable soil for turmeric plantation. Remember soil for turmeric cultivation should be rich and brittle. However, it can grow in different types of soils including sandy loam soil, clay loam soil, red soil and light black soil.
Soil pH for turmeric
Although turmeric can grow in different types of soils, it thrives best in well drained soil including sandy loam, clay loam, red texture soil, fertile soil etc. Soil ph for turmeric is considered between 4.5 to 7.5 with a good organic portfolio.
land preparation for turmeric cultivation
Before starting commercial turmeric cultivation one should prepare land because land preparation for growing turmeric plants in a healthy way is as important as water requirements to grow turmeric plants. First ploughing and harrowing is done during this process one should throw tiny stones out of the turmeric farm and remove weed as well.
50 cm spacing between beds is necessary for that you can create the bed that contains 15 cm height and 1 m width. Ridges and furrows need to be prepared for irrigation. Rhizomes are planted in shallow pits on the top of the elevations. Spacing required turmeric crops is 45-60 cm between the elevation and 15-20 cm between the plants.
Turmeric crop rotation
Finger millet, rice and sugarcane, maize, ragi, wheat, pulses, chill, onion, garlic, ginger
Turmeric mix cropping
It is rarely cultivated mixed with other crops such as brinjal, tomato, green chillies, okara, castor, maize and finger millets.
manure and fertilizer in turmeric farming
Turmeric needs a good amount of manure and fertilizers. Turmeric contains lots of medicinal properties therefore to get most of the advantage you should go with the best organic fertilizer for turmeric cultivation. Two to three ton per acre of well rotted cow dung is the fertilizer recommendation for turmeric farming per acre. You should apply this as a basal dose while planting turmeric seeds in the pits. Neem cake is one of the best organic fertilizer for turmeric crops. You can apply neem cake @ 0.8 tonnes per acre for better results.
Turmeric pests and diseases
Turmeric diseases and control
Turmeric plant diseases - Turmeric plant is itself a medicine hence, no major diseases are found in turmeric plant However leaf spot and leaf blotch can be seen some time but they can easily be controlled by the restricted use of Bordeaux mixture 1%. You can use the Trichoderma application to check the rhizome rot during the plant plantation period.
Turmeric crop pest control
Turmeric plant pests - To destroy shoot borer you can use 0.5 % neem oil spray.
Turmeric plant harvesting
Some varieties of turmeric plants take 7 to 8 months to get mature and some varieties need 8 to 9 months to mature or get ready for harvesting. You should start harvesting when the leaves of the turmeric plant start turning to yellow and they also start drying up. Lift up the clumps carefully so that you can collect the full portion of the rhizome ploughing process is also used to collect the mature rhizomes by hand picking. After collecting rhizomes cleaning should be done whereas mother and finger rhizomes are separated before curing.
Turmeric boiling process
In this process fresh rhizomes are boiled in water and dried in the sun. The boiling process should be done over a low flame until they soften. Boiling is to stop when the spume comes out. Boiling should be done between 45 to 60 minutes because over cooking can spoil the colour, productivity of the product whereas under cooking may brittle the product. Generally boiling is done to destroy the viability of the fresh rhizomes. After harvesting turmeric, the cooking process is done within 2 to 3 days. Cooked turmeric fingers are dried in the sun for the drying process. You can use a thick bamboo mat however, rhizomes may take 10 to 15 days to become completely dry.
Turmeric health benefits
Turmeric has various health benefits for skin and overall body some of the health benefits of turmeric are given below please have a look.
- Turmeric contains compounds (curcuminoids) with medicinal properties.
- Turmeric contains curcumin.
- Curcumin is a natural inflammatory compound.
- Turmeric is capable of increasing antioxidant capacity of the body.
- Turmeric compound curcumin is capable of lowering the risk of heart disease.
- Curcumin may help to treat Alzheimer disease.
- Turmeric is good for skin health.
- It is helpful for arthritis patients.
- 1 tablespoon turmeric with milk is good for sleep.
- Turmeric has anti-depression properties.
- According to Ayurveda turmeric is consist of anti aging properties.
Turmeric farming - FAQ
What type of soil is good for growing turmeric
Soil for turmeric cultivation are sandy loam soil, clay loam soil, red soil and light black soil.
How many turmeric plants per acre
Around 1000 turmeric seeds can planted in 1 acre